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Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
cumminslogo.jpg
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Quarterly Period Ended April 1, 2018
 
Commission File Number 1-4949
CUMMINS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Indiana
(State of Incorporation)
 
35-0257090
 (IRS Employer Identification No.)
500 Jackson Street
Box 3005
Columbus, Indiana 47202-3005
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
Telephone (812) 377-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x  No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes x  No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
 
Emerging growth company o
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o   No x
 
As of April 1, 2018, there were 164,772,900 shares of common stock outstanding with a par value of $2.50 per share.

 
 


Table of Contents

CUMMINS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income for the three months ended April 1, 2018 and April 2, 2017
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three months ended April 1, 2018 and April 2, 2017
 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at April 1, 2018 and December 31, 2017
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three months ended April 1, 2018 and April 2, 2017
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity for the three months ended April 1, 2018 and April 2, 2017
 
 
 
 

2

Table of Contents

PART I.  FINANCIAL INFORMATION 

ITEM 1.  Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements 
CUMMINS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(Unaudited)

 
 
Three months ended
In millions, except per share amounts 
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
NET SALES (a) (Note 3)
 
$
5,570

 
$
4,589

Cost of sales
 
4,370

 
3,457

GROSS MARGIN
 
1,200

 
1,132

OPERATING EXPENSES AND INCOME
 
 

 
 

Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
577

 
547

Research, development and engineering expenses
 
210

 
158

Equity, royalty and interest income from investees (Note 5)
 
115

 
108

Other operating income (expense), net
 
2

 
5

OPERATING INCOME
 
530

 
540

Interest income
 
7

 
2

Interest expense (Note 9)
 
24

 
18

Other income, net
 
10

 
24

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES
 
523

 
548

Income tax expense (Note 6)
 
198

 
143

CONSOLIDATED NET INCOME
 
325

 
405

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 

 
9

NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO CUMMINS INC.
 
$
325

 
$
396

 
 
 
 
 
EARNINGS PER COMMON SHARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO CUMMINS INC.
 
 

 
 

Basic
 
$
1.97

 
$
2.36

Diluted
 
$
1.96

 
$
2.36

 
 
 
 
 
WEIGHTED AVERAGE COMMON SHARES OUTSTANDING
 
 

 
 

Basic
 
164.9

 
167.5

Dilutive effect of stock compensation awards
 
0.8

 
0.5

Diluted
 
165.7

 
168.0

 
 
 
 
 
CASH DIVIDENDS DECLARED PER COMMON SHARE
 
$
1.08

 
$
1.025

____________________________________
(a) Includes sales to nonconsolidated equity investees of $297 million and $267 million for the three months ended April 1, 2018 and April 2, 2017, respectively.
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

3

Table of Contents

CUMMINS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
Three months ended
In millions 
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
CONSOLIDATED NET INCOME
 
$
325

 
$
405

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax (Note 12)
 
 

 
 

Change in pension and other postretirement defined benefit plans
 
8

 
21

Foreign currency translation adjustments
 
84

 
80

Unrealized gain on derivatives
 
7

 
1

Total other comprehensive income, net of tax
 
99

 
102

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
 
424

 
507

Less: Comprehensive (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
(7
)
 
22

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO CUMMINS INC.
 
$
431

 
$
485

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

4

Table of Contents

CUMMINS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
In millions, except par value
 
April 1,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
ASSETS
 
 

 
 

Current assets
 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
1,207

 
$
1,369

Marketable securities (Note 7)
 
180

 
198

Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
 
1,387

 
1,567

Accounts and notes receivable, net
 
 
 
 
Trade and other
 
3,579

 
3,311

Nonconsolidated equity investees
 
266

 
307

Inventories (Note 8)
 
3,411

 
3,166

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
558

 
577

Total current assets
 
9,201

 
8,928

Long-term assets
 
 

 
 

Property, plant and equipment
 
8,044

 
8,058

Accumulated depreciation
 
(4,152
)
 
(4,131
)
Property, plant and equipment, net
 
3,892

 
3,927

Investments and advances related to equity method investees
 
1,288

 
1,156

Goodwill
 
1,085

 
1,082

Other intangible assets, net
 
960

 
973

Pension assets
 
1,058

 
1,043

Other assets
 
908

 
966

Total assets
 
$
18,392

 
$
18,075

 
 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES
 
 

 
 

Current liabilities
 
 

 
 

Accounts payable (principally trade)
 
$
2,854

 
$
2,579

Loans payable (Note 9)
 
56

 
57

Commercial paper (Note 9)
 
593

 
298

Accrued compensation, benefits and retirement costs
 
361

 
811

Current portion of accrued product warranty (Note 10)
 
658

 
454

Current portion of deferred revenue
 
489

 
500

Other accrued expenses
 
764

 
915

Current maturities of long-term debt (Note 9)
 
57

 
63

Total current liabilities
 
5,832

 
5,677

Long-term liabilities
 
 

 
 

Long-term debt (Note 9)
 
1,571

 
1,588

Postretirement benefits other than pensions
 
284

 
289

Pensions
 
331

 
330

Other liabilities and deferred revenue
 
2,078

 
2,027

Total liabilities
 
$
10,096

 
$
9,911

 
 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)
 


 


 
 
 

 
 

EQUITY
 
 
 
 
Cummins Inc. shareholders’ equity
 
 

 
 

Common stock, $2.50 par value, 500 shares authorized, 222.4 and 222.4 shares issued
 
$
2,217

 
$
2,210

Retained earnings
 
11,641

 
11,464

Treasury stock, at cost, 57.6 and 56.7 shares
 
(5,061
)
 
(4,905
)
Common stock held by employee benefits trust, at cost, 0.5 and 0.5 shares
 
(6
)
 
(7
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss (Note 12)
 
(1,397
)
 
(1,503
)
Total Cummins Inc. shareholders’ equity
 
7,394

 
7,259

Noncontrolling interests
 
902

 
905

Total equity
 
$
8,296

 
$
8,164

Total liabilities and equity
 
$
18,392

 
$
18,075


The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Table of Contents

CUMMINS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
 
 

 
 

Consolidated net income
 
$
325

 
$
405

Adjustments to reconcile consolidated net income to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities
 
 

 
 

Depreciation and amortization
 
154

 
139

Deferred income taxes
 
(27
)
 
10

Equity in income of investees, net of dividends
 
(95
)
 
(83
)
Pension contributions under (in excess of) expense, net (Note 4)
 
13

 
(23
)
Other post retirement benefits payments in excess of expense, net (Note 4)
 
(5
)
 
(10
)
Stock-based compensation expense
 
9

 
7

Loss contingency payments
 
(65
)
 

Translation and hedging activities
 
38

 
11

Changes in current assets and liabilities
 
 
 
 

Accounts and notes receivable
 
(217
)
 
(205
)
Inventories
 
(259
)
 
(202
)
Other current assets
 
56

 
73

Accounts payable
 
246

 
296

Accrued expenses
 
(272
)
 
(90
)
Changes in other liabilities and deferred revenue
 
27

 
48

Other, net
 
(45
)
 
3

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities
 
(117
)
 
379

 
 
 
 
 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
 
 

 
 

Capital expenditures
 
(72
)
 
(81
)
Investments in internal use software
 
(15
)
 
(27
)
Investments in and advances to equity investees
 
(16
)
 
(20
)
Investments in marketable securities—acquisitions (Note 7)
 
(67
)
 
(26
)
Investments in marketable securities—liquidations (Note 7)
 
82

 
147

Cash flows from derivatives not designated as hedges
 
27

 
(24
)
Other, net
 
25

 
4

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(36
)
 
(27
)
 
 
 
 
 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES
 
 

 
 

Net borrowings of commercial paper
 
295

 
62

Payments on borrowings and capital lease obligations
 
(16
)
 
(11
)
Distributions to noncontrolling interests
 
(11
)
 
(10
)
Dividend payments on common stock
 
(178
)
 
(171
)
Repurchases of common stock
 
(163
)
 
(51
)
Other, net
 
21

 
17

Net cash used in financing activities
 
(52
)
 
(164
)
EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES ON CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
 
43

 
14

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
 
(162
)
 
202

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year
 
1,369

 
1,120

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT END OF PERIOD
 
$
1,207

 
$
1,322


 The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Table of Contents

CUMMINS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
(Unaudited)
 
In millions
Common
Stock
 
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Treasury
Stock
 
Common
Stock
Held in
Trust
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Total
Cummins Inc.
Shareholders’
Equity
 
Noncontrolling
Interests
 
Total
Equity
BALANCE AT DECEMBER 31, 2016
$
556

 
$
1,597

 
$
11,040

 
$
(4,489
)
 
$
(8
)
 
$
(1,821
)
 
$
6,875

 
$
299

 
$
7,174

Net income


 


 
396

 


 


 


 
396

 
9

 
405

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax (Note 12)


 


 


 


 


 
89

 
89

 
13

 
102

Employee benefits trust activity


 
9

 


 


 
1

 


 
10

 

 
10

Repurchases of common stock


 


 


 
(51
)
 


 


 
(51
)
 

 
(51
)
Cash dividends on common stock


 


 
(171
)
 


 


 


 
(171
)
 

 
(171
)
Distributions to noncontrolling interests


 


 


 


 


 


 

 
(10
)
 
(10
)
Stock based awards


 
(1
)
 


 
16

 


 


 
15

 

 
15

Other shareholder transactions


 
2

 


 


 


 


 
2

 

 
2

BALANCE AT APRIL 2, 2017
$
556

 
$
1,607

 
$
11,265

 
$
(4,524
)
 
$
(7
)
 
$
(1,732
)
 
$
7,165

 
$
311

 
$
7,476

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BALANCE AT DECEMBER 31, 2017
$
556

 
$
1,654

 
$
11,464

 
$
(4,905
)
 
$
(7
)
 
$
(1,503
)
 
$
7,259

 
$
905

 
$
8,164

Impact of adopting accounting standards (Notes 3 and 14)


 


 
30

 


 


 


 
30

 

 
30

Net income


 


 
325

 


 


 


 
325

 

 
325

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax (Note 12)


 


 
 
 


 


 
106

 
106

 
(7
)
 
99

Issuance of common stock 


 
3

 


 


 


 


 
3

 

 
3

Employee benefits trust activity


 
6

 


 


 
1

 


 
7

 

 
7

Repurchases of common stock


 


 


 
(163
)
 


 


 
(163
)
 

 
(163
)
Cash dividends on common stock


 


 
(178
)
 


 


 


 
(178
)
 

 
(178
)
Distributions to noncontrolling interests


 


 


 


 


 


 

 
(11
)
 
(11
)
Stock based awards


 
(4
)
 


 
7

 


 


 
3

 

 
3

Other shareholder transactions


 
2

 


 


 


 


 
2

 
15

 
17

BALANCE AT APRIL 1, 2018
$
556

 
$
1,661

 
$
11,641

 
$
(5,061
)
 
$
(6
)
 
$
(1,397
)
 
$
7,394

 
$
902

 
$
8,296

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Table of Contents

CUMMINS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
NOTE 1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS
Cummins Inc. (“Cummins,” “we,” “our” or “us”) was founded in 1919 as Cummins Engine Company, a corporation in Columbus, Indiana, and one of the first diesel engine manufacturers. In 2001, we changed our name to Cummins Inc. We are a global power leader that designs, manufactures, distributes and services diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, transmissions, electric power generation systems, batteries and electrified power systems. We sell our products to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), distributors and other customers worldwide. We serve our customers through a network of approximately 500 wholly-owned and independent distributor locations and over 7,500 dealer locations in more than 190 countries and territories.
NOTE 2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Interim Condensed Financial Statements
The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements reflect all adjustments which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair statement of the results of operations, financial position and cash flows. All such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP) pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for interim financial information. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted as permitted by such rules and regulations.
These interim condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. Our interim period financial results for the three month periods presented are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any other interim period or for the entire year. The year-end Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet data was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP.
Reclassifications
Certain amounts for prior year periods have been reclassified to conform to the presentation of the current year.
Use of Estimates in Preparation of Financial Statements
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts presented and disclosed in our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. Significant estimates and assumptions in these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements require the exercise of judgment and are used for, but not limited to, allowance for doubtful accounts, estimates of future cash flows and other assumptions associated with goodwill and long-lived asset impairment tests, useful lives for depreciation and amortization, warranty programs, determination of discount rate and other assumptions for pension and other postretirement benefit costs, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances, lease classification and contingencies. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be different from these estimates.
Reporting Period
Our reporting period usually ends on the Sunday closest to the last day of the quarterly calendar period. The first quarters of 2018 and 2017 ended on April 1 and April 2, respectively. Our fiscal year ends on December 31, regardless of the day of the week on which December 31 falls.
Weighted-Average Diluted Shares Outstanding
The weighted-average diluted common shares outstanding excludes the anti-dilutive effect of certain stock options since such options had an exercise price in excess of the monthly average market value of our common stock. The options excluded from diluted earnings per share were as follows:

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Table of Contents

 
 
Three months ended
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
Options excluded
6,867

 
116,535


NOTE 3. REVENUE RECOGNITION
Revenue Recognition Accounting Pronouncement Adoption
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) amended its standards related to revenue recognition to replace all existing revenue recognition guidance and provide a single, comprehensive model for all contracts with customers. The revised standard contains principles to determine the measurement of revenue and timing of when it is recognized. The underlying principle is that we will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. Other major provisions include capitalization of certain contract costs, consideration of the time value of money in the transaction price and allowing estimation of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. The amendment also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in those judgments as well as assets recognized from costs incurred to fulfill these contracts.
The standard allows either full or modified retrospective adoption effective for annual and interim periods beginning January 1, 2018. We adopted the standard using the modified retrospective approach. We elected to apply this guidance retrospectively only to contracts that were not completed at January 1, 2018.
We identified a change in the manner in which we account for certain license income. We license certain technology to our unconsolidated joint ventures that meet the definition of functional under the standard, which requires that revenue be recognized at a point in time rather than the previous requirement of recognizing it over the license term. Using the modified retrospective adoption method, we recorded an adjustment to our opening equity balance at January 1, 2018, to account for the differences between existing license income recorded and what would have been recorded under the new standard for contracts for which we started recognizing revenue prior to the adoption date. There was not a material impact on any individual year from this change.
We also identified transactions where revenue recognition was historically limited to the amount of billings not contingent on our future performance. With the allocation provisions of the new model, we accelerated the timing of revenue recognition for amounts related to satisfied performance obligations that would be delayed under the historical guidance. The impact of this change was not material.
On an ongoing basis, this amendment is not expected to have a material impact on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, including our internal controls over financial reporting, but will result in expanded disclosures in the Notes to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

We recorded a net increase to opening retained earnings of $28 million, net of tax, as of January 1, 2018, due to the cumulative impact of adopting the new revenue standard, with the impact primarily related to our technology licenses that now qualify for point in time recognition rather than over time. The impact to any individual financial statement line item as a result of applying the new standard, as compared to the old standard, was not material for the quarter ended April 1, 2018.
 
 


Revenue Recognition Policies

Revenue Recognition Sales of Products

We sell to customers either through long-term arrangements or standalone purchase orders. Our long-term arrangements generally do not include committed volumes until underlying purchase orders are issued. Our performance obligations vary by contract, but may include diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, transmissions, controls systems, air handling systems, and electric power generation systems, batteries, parts, maintenance services, and extended coverage.

Typically, we recognize revenue on the products we sell at a point in time, generally in accordance with shipping terms, which reflects the transfer of control to the customer. Since control of construction projects transfer to the customer as the work is performed, revenue on these projects is recognized based on the percentage of inputs incurred to date compared to the total expected cost of inputs, which is reflective of the value transferred to the customer. Revenue is recognized under long-term

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maintenance and other service agreements over the term of the agreement as underlying services are performed based on the percentage of the cost of services provided to date compared to the total expected cost of services to be provided under the contract. Sales of extended coverage are recognized based on the pattern of expected costs over the extended coverage period or, if such a pattern is unknown, on a straight-line basis over the coverage period as the customer is considered to benefit from our stand ready obligation over the coverage period. In all cases, we believe cost incurred is the most representative depiction of the extent of service performed to date on a particular contract.

Our arrangements may include the act of shipping products to our customers after the performance obligation related to that product has been satisfied. We have elected to account for shipping and handling as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer goods and have not allocated revenue to the shipping activity. All related shipping and handling costs are accrued at the time of shipment.

Our sales arrangements may include the collection of sales and other similar taxes that are then remitted to the related taxing authority. We have elected to present the amounts collected for these taxes net of the related tax expense rather than presenting them as additional revenue.

We grant credit limits and terms to customers based upon traditional practices and competitive conditions. Typical terms vary by market, but payments are generally due in 90 days or less from invoicing for most of our product and service sales, while payments on construction and other similar arrangements may be due on an installment basis.

For contracts where the time between cash collection and performance is less than one year, we have elected to use the practical expedient that allows us to ignore the possible existence of a significant financing component within the contract. For contracts where this time period exceeds one year, generally the timing difference is the result of business concerns other than financing. We do have a limited amount of customer financing for which we charge or impute interest, but such amounts are immaterial to our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income.

Sales Incentives

We provide various sales incentives to both our distribution network and OEM customers. These programs are designed to promote the sale of our products in the channel or encourage the usage of our products by OEM customers. When there is uncertainty surrounding these sales incentives, we may limit the amount of revenue we recognize under a contract until the uncertainty has been resolved. Sales incentives primarily fall into three categories:

Volume rebates;
Market share rebates; and
Aftermarket rebates.

For volume rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities for attaining specified volumes during a particular quarter or year. We consider the expected amount of these rebates at the time of the original sale as we determine the overall transaction price. We update our assessment of the amount of rebates that will be earned quarterly based on our best estimate of the volume levels the customer will reach during the measurement period. For market share rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities based on the percentage of their production that utilizes our product. These rebates are typically measured either quarterly or annually and we assess them at least quarterly to determine our current estimates of amounts expected to be earned. These estimates are considered in the determination of transaction price at the time of the original sale based on the current market shares, with adjustments made as the level changes. For aftermarket rebates, we provide incentives to promote sales to certain dealers and end-markets. These rebates are typically paid on a quarterly, or more frequent, basis and estimates are made at the end of each quarter as to the amount yet to be paid. These estimates are based on historical experience with the particular program.

Sales Returns

The initial determination of the transaction price may also be impacted by expected product returns. Rights of return do not exist for the majority of our sales, other than for quality issues. We do offer certain return rights in our aftermarket business, where some aftermarket customers are permitted to return small amounts of parts and filters each year, and in our power generation business, which sells portable generators to retail customers. An estimate of future returns is accounted for at the time of sale as a reduction in the overall contract transaction price based on historical return rates.


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Table of Contents

Multiple Performance Obligations

Our sales arrangements may include multiple performance obligations. We identify each of the material performance obligations in these arrangements and allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on its relative selling price. In most cases, the individual performance obligations are also sold separately and we use that price as the basis for allocating revenue to the included performance obligations. When an arrangement includes multiple performance obligations and invoicing to the customer does not match the allocated portion of the transaction price, unbilled revenue or deferred revenue is recorded reflecting that difference. Unbilled and deferred revenue are discussed in more detail below.

Long-term Contracts

Our long-term maintenance agreements often include a variable amount of transaction price. We are generally compensated under such arrangements on a cost per hour of usage basis. We typically can estimate the expected usage over the life of the contract, but reassess the transaction price each quarter and adjust our recognized revenue accordingly. Certain maintenance agreements apply to generators used to provide standby power, which have limited expectations of usage. These agreements may include monthly minimum payments, providing some certainty to the total transaction price. For these particular contracts that relate to standby power, we limit revenue recognized to date to an amount representing the total minimums earned to date under the contract plus any cumulative billings earned in excess of the minimums. We reassess the estimates of progress and transaction price on a quarterly basis. For prime power arrangements, revenue is not subject to such a constraint and is generally equal to the current estimate on a percentage of completion basis times the total expected revenue under the contract.

Most of our contracts are for a period of less than one year. We have certain long-term maintenance agreements, construction contracts and extended warranty coverage arrangements that span a period in excess of one year. The aggregate amount of the transaction price for long-term maintenance agreements and construction contracts allocated to performance obligations that have not been satisfied as of April 1, 2018, was $643 million. We expect to recognize the related revenue of $239 million over the next 12 months and $404 million over periods up to 10 years. See NOTE 10 ,"PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional disclosures on extended warranty coverage arrangements. Our other contracts generally are for a duration of less than one year or include payment terms that correspond to the value we are providing our customers.

Deferred and Unbilled Revenue

The timing of our billing does not always match the timing of our revenue recognition. When we are entitled to bill a customer in advance of when we are permitted to recognize revenue, we record deferred revenue. Deferred revenue may arise in construction contracts, where billings may occur in advance of performance or in accordance with specific milestones. Deferred revenue may also occur in long-term maintenance contracts, where billings are often based on usage of the underlying equipment, which generally follows a predictable pattern that often will result in the accumulation of collections in advance of our performance of the related maintenance services. Finally, deferred revenue exists in our extended coverage contracts, where the cash is collected prior to the commencement of the coverage period. Deferred revenue is included in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current liabilities for those expected to be recognized in revenue in a period of less than one year and long-term liabilities for those expected to be recognized as revenue in a period beyond one year. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue as (or when) control of the underlying product, project or service passes to the customer under the related contract.
 
When we are not entitled to bill a customer until a period after we have recognized the related revenue, we recognize unbilled revenue. Unbilled revenue is included in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current assets for those expected to be collected in a period of less than one year and long-term assets for those expected to be collected in a period beyond one year. Unbilled revenue relates to our right to consideration for our completed performance under a contract. Unbilled revenue generally arises from contractual provisions that delay a portion of the billings on genset deliveries until commissioning occurs. Unbilled revenue may also occur when billings trail the provision of service in construction and long-term maintenance contracts. We periodically assess our unbilled revenue for impairment.

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Table of Contents

The following is a summary of our unbilled and deferred revenue and related activity:
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
January 1,
2018
Unbilled revenue
 
$
49

 
$
6

Deferred revenue, primarily extended warranty
 
1,085

 
1,052

Revenue recognized (1)
 
(128
)
 

____________________________________
(1) Relates to revenue recognized in the period from amounts included in contract liabilities at the beginning of the period. Revenue recognized
in the period from performance obligations satisfied in previous periods was immaterial.
We did not record any impairment losses on our unbilled revenues during the three months ended April 1, 2018.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Trade accounts receivable represent amounts billed to customers and not yet collected or amounts that have been earned, but may not be billed until the passage of time, and are recorded when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, which approximates net realizable value, and generally do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is our best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in our existing accounts receivable. We determine the allowance based on our historical collection experience and by performing an analysis of our accounts receivable in light of the current economic environment. We review our allowance for doubtful accounts on a regular basis. In addition, when necessary, we provide an allowance for the full amount of specific accounts deemed to be uncollectible. Account balances are charged off against the allowance in the period in which we determine that it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The allowance for doubtful accounts balances for the periods ended April 1, 2018 and December 31, 2017, were $17 million and $16 million, respectively, and bad debt write-offs were not material.

Contract Costs

We are required to record an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer and other costs to fulfill a contract not otherwise required to be immediately expensed when we expect to recover those costs. The only material incremental cost we incur is commission expense, which is generally incurred in the same period as the underlying revenue. Costs to fulfill a contract are generally limited to customer-specific engineering expenses that do not meet the definition of research and development expenses. As a practical expedient, we have elected to recognize these costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when the related contract period is less than one year. When the period exceeds one year, this asset is amortized over the life of the contract. We did not have any material capitalized balances at April 1, 2018.

Extended Warranty

In addition, we sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines and on certain components. We consider a warranty to be extended coverage in any of the following situations:

When a warranty is sold separately or is optional (extended coverage contracts, for example) or
When a warranty provides additional services.

The consideration collected is initially deferred and is recognized as revenue in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred in performing services over the contract period. We compare the remaining deferred revenue balance quarterly to the estimated amount of future claims under extended warranty programs and provide an additional accrual when the deferred revenue balance is less than expected future costs. See NOTE 10, "PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional information.

Disaggregation Of Revenue
Consolidated Revenue
The tables below present our consolidated sales by geographic area. Net sales attributed to geographic areas were based on the location of the customer.

12

Table of Contents

 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
United States
 
$
3,038

China
 
550

India
 
235

Other International
 
1,747

Total net sales
 
$
5,570


Segment Revenue
Engine segment external sales by market were as follows:
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
Heavy-duty truck
 
$
614

Medium-duty truck and bus
 
627

Light-duty automotive
 
323

Total on-highway
 
1,564

Off-highway
 
249

Total sales
 
$
1,813


Distribution segment external sales by region were as follows:
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
North America
 
$
1,274

Asia Pacific
 
187

Europe
 
131

China
 
77

Africa and Middle East
 
61

India
 
44

Latin America
 
38

Russia
 
35

Total sales
 
$
1,847



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Table of Contents

Distribution segment external sales by product line were as follows:
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
Parts
 
$
803

Engines
 
368

Service
 
351

Power generation
 
325

Total sales
 
$
1,847


Components segment external sales by business were as follows:
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
Emission solutions
 
$
684

Filtration
 
257

Turbo technologies
 
197

Automated transmissions
 
117

Electronics and fuel systems
 
58

Total sales
 
$
1,313


Power Systems segment external sales by product line were as follows:
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
Power generation
 
$
310

Industrial
 
201

Generator technologies
 
84

Total sales
 
$
595


 

NOTE 4. PENSION AND OTHER POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS
We sponsor funded and unfunded domestic and foreign defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans. Contributions to these plans were as follows:
 
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
Defined benefit pension plans
 
 

 
 

Voluntary contribution
 
$
3

 
$
43

Mandatory contribution
 
6

 

Defined benefit pension contributions
 
$
9

 
$
43

 
 
 
 
 
Other postretirement benefit plans
 
$
7

 
$
15

 
 
 
 
 
Defined contribution pension plans
 
$
40

 
$
29



14

Table of Contents

We anticipate making additional defined benefit pension contributions during the remainder of 2018 of $29 million for our U.S. and U.K. pension plans. Approximately $14 million of the estimated $38 million of pension contributions for the full year are voluntary. These contributions may be made from trusts or company funds either to increase pension assets or to make direct benefit payments to plan participants. We expect our 2018 net periodic pension cost to approximate $86 million.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted the new accounting standard related to the presentation of pension and other postretirement benefit costs. See NOTE 14, "RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS," for detailed information about the adoption of this standard.
The components of net periodic pension and other postretirement benefit costs under our plans were as follows:
 
 
Pension
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Plans
 
U.K. Plans
 
Other Postretirement Benefits
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
Service cost
 
$
30

 
$
27

 
$
8

 
$
6

 
$

 
$

Interest cost
 
25

 
26

 
11

 
10

 
2

 
3

Expected return on plan assets
 
(49
)
 
(51
)
 
(18
)
 
(17
)
 

 

Recognized net actuarial loss
 
8

 
9

 
7

 
10

 

 
2

Net periodic benefit cost
 
$
14

 
$
11

 
$
8

 
$
9

 
$
2

 
$
5

Net periodic benefit cost

NOTE 5. EQUITY, ROYALTY AND INTEREST INCOME FROM INVESTEES
Equity, royalty and interest income from investees included in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income for the reporting periods was as follows: 
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
Distribution entities
 
 
 
 
Komatsu Cummins Chile, Ltda.
 
$
7

 
$
7

Manufacturing entities
 
 
 
 
Beijing Foton Cummins Engine Co., Ltd.
 
21

 
33

Dongfeng Cummins Engine Company, Ltd.
 
17

 
22

Chongqing Cummins Engine Company, Ltd.
 
17

 
9

Cummins Westport, Inc.
 
6

 
1

Dongfeng Cummins Emission Solutions Co., Ltd.
 
5

 
3

All other manufacturers
 
25

 
20

Cummins share of net income
 
98

 
95

Royalty and interest income
 
17

 
13

Equity, royalty and interest income from investees
 
$
115

 
$
108


NOTE 6. INCOME TAXES
Our effective tax rate for the year is expected to approximate 23.0 percent, excluding any discrete tax items that may arise.
Our effective tax rate for the three months ended April 1, 2018, was 37.9 percent and contained $78 million, or $0.47 per share, of unfavorable discrete tax items, primarily related to a 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Legislation) adjustment of $74 million. This includes $39 million associated with changes related to the Tax Legislation measurement period adjustment, detailed below, and $35 million associated with the one-time recognition of deferred tax charges at historical tax rates on intercompany profit in inventory.
Our effective tax rate for the three months ended April 2, 2017, was 26.1 percent and contained only immaterial discrete tax items.

15

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The SEC issued guidance which addressed the uncertainty in the application of GAAP to the Tax Legislation where certain income tax effects could not be finalized at December 31, 2017. This guidance allows entities to record provisional amounts based on current estimates that are updated on a quarterly basis. As a result, our accounting for the effects of the Tax Legislation are not considered complete at this time. The final transition impacts of the Tax Legislation may differ from our estimates, possibly materially, due to, among other things, changes in interpretations of the Tax Legislation, any legislative action to address questions that arise because of the Tax Legislation, any changes in accounting standards for income taxes or related interpretations in response to the Tax Legislation, or any updates or changes to estimates we have utilized to calculate the transition impacts. The SEC requires final calculations to be completed within the one-year measurement period ending December 22, 2018, and reflect any additional guidance issued throughout the year. Any adjustments of provisional amounts will be reported in continuing operations in the period in which the estimates change. We have made provisional estimates of the effects of the Tax Legislation in three primary areas: (1) the one-time transition tax; (2) the withholding tax accrued on those earnings no longer considered permanently reinvested at December 31, 2017 and (3) our existing deferred tax balances. In January 2018, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued guidance, adopted in the first quarter of 2018, which required adjustment of the one-time transition tax as shown in the table below.
The changes during the one-year measurement period for April 1, 2018, for each group consisted of the following:
In millions
Tax Valuation Adjustments
as of
April 1, 2018
One-time transition tax
$
34

Withholding tax accrued
5

Net impact of measurement period changes
$
39


NOTE 7. MARKETABLE SECURITIES
A summary of marketable securities, all of which are classified as current, was as follows:
 
 
 
April 1, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
In millions
 
Cost
 
Gross unrealized
gains/(losses)
(1)
 
Estimated
fair value
 
Cost
 
Gross unrealized
gains/(losses)
 
Estimated
fair value
Equity securities
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Debt mutual funds
 
$
115

 
$

 
$
115

 
$
170

 
$

 
$
170

Certificates of deposit
 
48

 

 
48

 
12

 

 
12

Equity mutual funds
 
14

 
2

 
16

 
12

 
3

 
15

Available-for-sale debt securities
 
1

 

 
1

 
1

 

 
1

Total marketable securities
 
$
178

 
$
2

 
$
180

 
$
195

 
$
3

 
$
198

____________________________________
(1) Unrealized gains and losses for available-for-sale debt securities are recorded in other comprehensive income (See NOTE 12, "ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE LOSS," to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for more information). Effective January 1, 2018, with the adoption of the FASB standard, all unrealized gains and losses for equity securities are recorded in other income, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income. See NOTE 14, "RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS," for detailed information about the adoption of this standard.

All marketable securities are classified as Level 2 securities. The fair value of Level 2 securities is estimated using actively quoted prices for similar instruments from brokers and observable inputs where available, including market transactions and third-party pricing services, or net asset values provided to investors. We do not currently have any Level 3 securities and there were no transfers between Level 2 or 3 during the first three months of 2018 and for the year ended 2017.

A description of the valuation techniques and inputs used for our Level 2 fair value measures is as follows:
Debt mutual funds— The fair value measure for the vast majority of these investments is the daily net asset value published on a regulated governmental website. Daily quoted prices are available from the issuing brokerage and are used on a test basis to corroborate this Level 2 input.

16


Certificates of deposit— These investments provide us with a contractual rate of return and generally range in maturity from three months to five years. The counterparties to these investments are reputable financial institutions with investment grade credit ratings. Since these instruments are not tradable and must be settled directly by us with the respective financial institution, our fair value measure is the financial institution's month-end statement.
Equity mutual funds— The fair value measure for these investments is the net asset value published by the issuing brokerage. Daily quoted prices are available from reputable third party pricing services and are used on a test basis to corroborate this Level 2 input measure.
Available-for-sale debt securities— The fair value measure for these securities is broker quotes received from reputable firms. These securities are infrequently traded on a national stock exchange and these values are used on a test basis to corroborate our Level 2 input measure.
The proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities were as follows:
 
 
Three months ended
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
April 2,
2017
Proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities
 
$
82

 
$
147

 
 

NOTE 8. INVENTORIES
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Inventories included the following:
 
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Finished products
 
$
2,196

 
$
2,078

Work-in-process and raw materials
 
1,337

 
1,216

Inventories at FIFO cost
 
3,533

 
3,294

Excess of FIFO over LIFO
 
(122
)
 
(128
)
Total inventories
 
$
3,411

 
$
3,166


NOTE 9. DEBT
Loans Payable and Commercial Paper
Loans payable, commercial paper and the related weighted-average interest rates were as follows:
In millions
 
April 1, 2018
 
December 31,
2017
Loans payable (1)
 
$
56

 
$
57

Commercial paper (2)
 
593

 
298

____________________________________
(1)  Loans payable consist primarily of notes payable to various domestic and international financial institutions. It is not practicable to aggregate these notes and calculate a quarterly weighted-average interest rate.
(2)  The weighted average interest rate, inclusive of all brokerage fees, was 1.92 percent and 1.56 percent at April 1, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
We can issue up to $2.75 billion of unsecured short-term promissory notes ("commercial paper") pursuant to our board authorized commercial paper programs. The programs facilitate the private placement of unsecured short-term debt through third party brokers. We intend to use the net proceeds from the commercial paper borrowings for general corporate purposes.
Revolving Credit Facilities
We have access to committed credit facilities that total $2.75 billion, including a $1.0 billion, 364-day facility that expires September 14, 2018 and a $1.75 billion, 5-year facility that expires on November 13, 2020. We intend to maintain credit facilities of a similar aggregate amount by renewing or replacing these facilities before expiration. Revolving credit facilities are maintained primarily to provide backup liquidity for our commercial paper borrowings, letters of credit and general corporate purposes.

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Long-term Debt
A summary of long-term debt was as follows:
 
In millions
 
April 1,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Long-term debt
 
 

 
 

Senior notes, 3.65%, due 2023
 
$
500

 
$
500

Debentures, 6.75%, due 2027
 
58

 
58

Debentures, 7.125%, due 2028
 
250

 
250

Senior notes, 4.875%, due 2043
 
500

 
500

Debentures, 5.65%, due 2098 (effective interest rate 7.48%)
 
165

 
165

Other debt
 
68

 
76

Unamortized discount
 
(53
)
 
(54
)
Fair value adjustments due to hedge on indebtedness
 
23

 
35

Capital leases
 
117

 
121

Total long-term debt
 
1,628

 
1,651

Less: Current maturities of long-term debt