SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2012
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations
Cummins Inc. was founded in 1919 as a corporation in Columbus, Indiana, as one of the first diesel engine manufacturers. We are a global power leader that designs, manufactures, distributes and services diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems and electric power generation systems. We sell our products to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), distributors and other customers worldwide. We serve our customers through a network of approximately 600 company-owned and independent distributor locations and approximately 6,500 dealer locations in more than 190 countries and territories.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of all wholly-owned and majority-owned domestic and foreign subsidiaries where our ownership is more than 50 percent of outstanding equity interests except for majority-owned subsidiaries that are considered variable interest entities (VIEs) where we are not deemed to have a controlling financial interest. In addition, we also consolidate, regardless of our ownership percentage, VIEs for which we are deemed to have a controlling financial interest. Intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation. Where our ownership interest is less than 100 percent, the noncontrolling ownership interests are reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The noncontrolling ownership interest in our income, net of tax, is classified as "Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests" in our Consolidated Statements of Income.
Certain amounts for 2011 and 2010 have been reclassified to conform to the current classifications.
We have variable interests in several businesses accounted for under the equity method of accounting that are deemed to be VIEs and are subject to the provisions of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) for variable interest entities. Most of these VIEs are unconsolidated and as such are included in the summary of disclosures in Note 3, "INVESTMENTS IN EQUITY INVESTEES." The VIEs, including the consolidated VIEs, are not material individually or in the aggregate to our Consolidated Balance Sheets or Consolidated Statements of Income.
Investments in Equity Investees
We use the equity method to account for our investments in joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence, generally represented by equity ownership or partnership equity of at least 20 percent but not more than 50 percent. Generally, under the equity method, original investments in these entities are recorded at cost and subsequently adjusted by our share of equity in income or losses after the date of acquisition. Investment amounts in excess of our share of an investee's net assets are amortized over the life of the related asset creating the excess. If the excess is goodwill, then it is not amortized. Equity in income or losses of each investee is recorded according to our level of ownership; if losses accumulate, we record our share of losses until our investment has been fully depleted. If our investment has been fully depleted, we recognize additional losses only when we are the primary funding source. We eliminate (to the extent of our ownership percentage) in our Consolidated Financial Statements the profit in inventory held by our equity method investees that has not yet been sold to a third-party. Our investments are classified as "Investments and advances related to equity method investees" in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our share of the results from joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances is reported in our Consolidated Statements of Income as "Equity, royalty and interest income from investees," and is reported net of all applicable income taxes.
Our foreign equity investees are presented net of applicable foreign income taxes in our Consolidated Statements of Income. The vast majority of our United States (U.S.) equity investees are partnerships (non-taxable), thus there is no difference between gross or net of tax presentation as the investees are not taxed.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of the Financial Statements
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts presented and disclosed in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Significant estimates and assumptions in these Consolidated Financial Statements require the exercise of judgment and are used for, but not limited to, allowance for doubtful accounts, estimates of future cash flows and other assumptions associated with goodwill and long-lived asset impairment tests, useful lives for depreciation and amortization, warranty programs, determination of discount and other rate assumptions for pension and other postretirement benefit expenses, restructuring costs, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances, lease classification and contingencies. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be different from these estimates.
We recognize revenue, net of estimated costs of returns, allowances and sales incentives, when it is realized or realizable, which generally occurs when:
Products are generally sold on open account under credit terms customary to the geographic region of distribution. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and generally do not require collateral to secure our accounts receivable. For engines, service parts, service tools and other items sold to independent distributors and to partially-owned distributors accounted for under the equity method, revenues are recorded when title and risk of ownership transfers. This transfer is based on the agreement in effect with the respective distributor, which in the U.S. and most international locations, generally occurs when the products are shipped. To the extent of our ownership percentage, margins on sales to distributors accounted for under the equity method are deferred until the distributor sells the product to unrelated parties.
We provide various sales incentives to both our distribution network and our OEM customers. These programs are designed to promote the sale of our product in the channel or encourage the usage of our products by OEM customers. Sales incentives primarily fall into three categories:
For volume rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities for attaining specified volumes during a particular quarter or year. We accrue for the expected amount of these rebates at the time of the original sale and update our accruals quarterly based on our best estimate of the volume levels the customer will reach during the measurement period. For market share rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities based on the percentage of their production that utilizes our product. These rebates are typically measured either quarterly or annually and are accrued at the time of the original sale based on the current market shares, with adjustments made as the level changes. For aftermarket rebates we provide incentives to promote sales to certain dealers and end-markets. These rebates are typically paid on a quarterly, or more frequent, basis and estimates are made at the end of each quarter as to the amount yet to be paid. These estimates are based on historical experience with the particular program. The incentives are classified as a reduction in sales in our Consolidated Statements of Income.
Rights of return do not exist for the majority of our sales, other than for quality issues. We do offer certain return rights in our aftermarket business, where some aftermarket customers are permitted to return small amounts of parts and filters each year and in our power generation business, which sells portable generators to retail customers. An estimate of future returns is accrued at the time of sale based on historical return rates.
Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation
We translate assets and liabilities of foreign entities to U.S. dollars, where the local currency is the functional currency, at year-end exchange rates. We translate income and expenses to U.S. dollars using weighted-average exchange rates for the year. We record adjustments resulting from translation in a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and include the adjustments in net income only upon sale or liquidation of the underlying foreign investment.
Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in current net income. For foreign entities where the U.S. dollar is the functional currency, including those operating in highly inflationary economies when applicable, we remeasure non-monetary balances and the related income statement using historical exchange rates. We include in income the resulting gains and losses, including the effect of derivatives in our Consolidated Statements of Income, which combined with transaction gains and losses amounted to a net loss of $14 million in 2012, net loss of $14 million in 2011 and net loss of $1 million in 2010.
We make use of derivative instruments in foreign exchange, commodity price and interest rate hedging programs. Derivatives currently in use are foreign currency forward contracts, commodity swap contracts, commodity zero-cost collars and an interest rate swap. These contracts are used strictly for hedging and not for speculative purposes.
Due to our international business presence, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk. We transact in foreign currencies and have significant assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. Consequently, our income experiences some volatility related to movements in foreign currency exchange rates. In order to benefit from global diversification and after considering naturally offsetting currency positions, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts to minimize our existing exposures (recognized assets and liabilities) and hedge forecasted transactions.
We are exposed to fluctuations in commodity prices due to contractual agreements with component suppliers. In order to protect ourselves against future price volatility and, consequently, fluctuations in gross margins, we periodically enter into commodity swap contracts with designated banks to fix the cost of certain raw material purchases with the objective of minimizing changes in inventory cost due to market price fluctuations.
We record all derivatives at fair value in our financial statements. Note 21, "DERIVATIVES," provides further information on our hedging strategy and accounting for derivative financial instruments.
Income Tax Accounting
We determine our income tax expense using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Future tax benefits of tax loss and credit carryforwards are also recognized as deferred tax assets. We evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets each quarter by assessing the likelihood of future profitability and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize our net deferred tax assets. At December 31, 2012, we recorded net deferred tax assets of $396 million. These assets included $165 million for the value of tax loss and credit carryforwards. A valuation allowance of $95 million was recorded to reduce the tax assets to the net value management believed was more likely than not to be realized. In the event our operating performance deteriorates, future assessments could conclude that a larger valuation allowance will be needed to further reduce the deferred tax assets. In addition, we operate within multiple taxing jurisdictions and are subject to tax audits in these jurisdictions. These audits can involve complex issues, which may require an extended period of time to resolve. We reduce our net tax assets for the estimated additional tax and interest that may result from tax authorities disputing uncertain tax positions we have taken and we believe we have made adequate provision for income taxes for all years that are subject to audit based upon the latest information available. A more complete description of our income taxes and the future benefits of our tax loss and credit carryforwards is disclosed in Note 4, "INCOME TAXES."
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents are defined as short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase. The carrying amounts reflected in our Consolidated Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of these investments.
We account for marketable securities in accordance with GAAP for investments in debt and equity securities. We determine the appropriate classification of all marketable securities as "held-to-maturity, "available-for-sale" or "trading" at the time of purchase, and re-evaluate such classifications at each balance sheet date. At December 31, 2012 and 2011, all of our investments were classified as available-for-sale.
Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value with the unrealized gain or loss, net of tax, reported in other comprehensive income. Unrealized losses considered to be "other-than-temporary" are recognized currently in income. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method. The fair value of most investment securities is determined by currently available market prices. Where quoted market prices are not available, we use the market price of similar types of securities that are traded in the market to estimate fair value. See Note 5, "MARKETABLE SECURITIES," for a detailed description of our investments in marketable securities.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, which approximates net realizable value, and generally do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is our best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in our existing accounts receivable. We determine the allowance based on our historical collection experience and by performing an analysis of our accounts receivable in light of the current economic environment. We review our allowance for doubtful accounts on a regular basis. In addition, when necessary, we provide an allowance for the full amount of specific accounts deemed to be uncollectible. Account balances are charged off against the allowance in the period in which we determine that it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The activity in our allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows:
Our inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. For the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, approximately 14 percent and 17 percent, respectively, of our consolidated inventories (primarily heavy-duty and high-horsepower engines and parts) were valued using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) cost method. The cost of other inventories is generally valued using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) cost method. Our inventories at interim and year-end reporting dates include estimates for adjustments related to annual physical inventory results and for inventory cost changes under the LIFO cost method. Due to significant movements of partially-manufactured components and parts between manufacturing plants, we do not internally measure, nor do our accounting systems provide, a meaningful segregation between raw materials and work-in-process.
Property, Plant and Equipment
We record property, plant and equipment, inclusive of assets under capital leases, at cost. We depreciate the cost of certain engine production equipment using a modified units-of-production method, which is based upon units produced subject to a minimum level. We depreciate the cost of all other equipment using the straight-line method with depreciable lives ranging from 20 to 40 years for buildings and three to 20 years for machinery, equipment and fixtures. Capital lease amortization is recorded in depreciation expense. We expense normal maintenance and repair costs as incurred. Depreciation expense totaled $287 million, $264 million and $248 million for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
We review our long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of the carrying value of the long-lived assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. An impairment of a long-lived asset or asset group exists when the expected future pre-tax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) estimated to be generated by the asset or asset group is less than its carrying value. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such asset or asset group, an impairment loss is measured based on the difference between the estimated fair value and carrying value of the asset or asset group. Assumptions and estimates used to estimate cash flows in the evaluation of impairment and the fair values used to determine the impairment are subject to a degree of judgment and complexity. Any changes to the assumptions and estimates resulting from changes in actual results or market conditions from those anticipated may affect the carrying value of long-lived assets and could result in a future impairment charge.
Under GAAP for goodwill, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform an annual two-step goodwill impairment test. The two-step impairment test is now only required if an entity determines through this qualitative analysis that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. In addition, carrying value of goodwill must be tested for impairment on an interim basis in certain circumstances where impairment may be indicated. When we are required or opt to perform the two-step impairment test, the fair value of each reporting unit is estimated by discounting the after tax future cash flows less requirements for working capital and fixed asset additions. Our reporting units are generally defined as one level below an operating segment. However, there were two situations where we have aggregated two or more components which share similar economic characteristics and thus are aggregated into a single reporting unit for testing purposes. These two situations are described further below. This analysis has resulted in the following reporting units for our goodwill testing:
No other reporting units have goodwill. Our valuation method requires us to make projections of revenue, operating expenses, working capital investment and fixed asset additions for the reporting units over a multi-year period. Additionally, management must estimate a weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects a market rate, for each reporting unit for use as a discount rate. The discounted cash flows are compared to the carrying value of the reporting unit and, if less than the carrying value, a separate valuation of the goodwill is required to determine if an impairment loss has occurred. In addition, we also perform a sensitivity analysis to determine how much our forecasts can fluctuate before the fair value of a reporting unit would be lower than its carrying amount. We performed the required procedures as of the end of our fiscal third quarter and determined that our goodwill was not impaired. At December 31, 2012, our recorded goodwill was $445 million, approximately 90 percent of which resided in the emission solutions plus filtration reporting unit. For this reporting unit, the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying value by a substantial margin. Changes in our projections or estimates, a deterioration of our operating results and the related cash flow effect or a significant increase in the discount rate could decrease the estimated fair value of our reporting units and result in a future impairment of goodwill.
We capitalize certain costs for software that are developed or obtained for internal use. Software costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from three to 12 years. Software assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable over the remaining lives of the assets. Upgrades and enhancements are capitalized if they result in significant modifications that enable the software to perform tasks it was previously incapable of performing. Software maintenance, training, data conversion and business process reengineering costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
We charge the estimated costs of warranty programs, other than product recalls, to income at the time products are shipped to customers. We use historical experience of warranty programs to develop the estimated liability for our various warranty programs. As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the nature and frequency of product recall programs, the liability for such programs is recorded when we commit to a recall action or when a recall becomes probable and estimable, which generally occurs when it is announced. The liability for these programs is reflected in the provision for warranties issued. We review and assess the liability for these programs on a quarterly basis. We also assess our ability to recover certain costs from our suppliers and record a receivable from the supplier when we believe a recovery is probable. At December 31, 2012, we had $13 million of receivables related to estimated supplier recoveries of which $7 million was included in "Trade and other receivables, net" and $6 million was included in "Other assets" on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. At December 31, 2011, we had $14 million of receivables related to estimated supplier recoveries of which $7 million was included in "Trade and other receivables, net" and $7 million was included in "Other assets" on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
In addition, we sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines. The revenue collected is initially deferred and is recognized as revenue in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred in performing services over the contract period. We compare the remaining deferred revenue balance quarterly to the estimated amount of future claims under extended warranty programs and provide an additional accrual when the deferred revenue balance is less than expected future costs.
Research and Development
Our research and development program is focused on product improvements, innovations and cost reductions for our customers. Research and development expenditures include salaries, contractor fees, building costs, utilities, administrative expenses and allocation of corporate costs and are expensed, net of contract reimbursements, when incurred. Research and development expenses, net of contract reimbursements, were $721 million in 2012, $621 million in 2011 and $402 million in 2010. Contract reimbursements were $86 million in 2012, $75 million in 2011 and $68 million in 2010.
Related Party Transactions
In accordance with the provisions of various joint venture agreements, we may purchase products and components from our joint ventures, sell products and components to our joint ventures and our joint ventures may sell products and components to unrelated parties. Joint venture transfer prices may differ from normal selling prices. Certain joint venture agreements transfer product at cost, some transfer product on a cost-plus basis, and others transfer product at market value. Our related party sales are presented on the face of our Consolidated Statements of Income. Our related party purchases were not material to our financial position or results of operations.
RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted
In June 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) amended its rules regarding the presentation of comprehensive income. The objective of this amendment was to improve the comparability, consistency and transparency of financial reporting and to increase the prominence of items reported in other comprehensive income. Specifically, this amendment requires that all non-owner changes in shareholders' equity be presented either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. In addition, the standard also requires disclosure of the location of reclassification adjustments between other comprehensive income and net income on the face of the financial statements. The new rules became effective for us beginning January 1, 2012. In December 2011, the FASB deferred certain aspects of this standard beyond the current effective date, specifically the provisions dealing with reclassification adjustments. Because the standard only impacts the display of comprehensive income and does not impact what is included in comprehensive income, the standard did not have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In May 2011, the FASB amended its standards related to fair value measurements and disclosures. The objective of the amendment was to improve the comparability of fair value measurements presented and disclosed in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. Primarily this amendment changed the wording used to describe many of the requirements in U.S. GAAP for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements in addition to clarifying the Board's intent about the application of existing fair value measurement requirements. The new standard also requires additional disclosures related to fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy and requires disclosure of the categorization in the hierarchy for items which are not recorded at fair value but fair value is required to be disclosed. The new rules were effective for us beginning January 1, 2012. As of December 31, 2012, we had no fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 outside of our pension plans. The only impact for us is the disclosure of the categorization in the fair value hierarchy for those items where fair value is only disclosed (primarily our debt obligations). Our disclosure related to the new standard is included in Note 6, "FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS," to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued But Not Yet Effective
In December 2011, the FASB amended its standards related to offsetting assets and liabilities. This amendment requires entities to disclose both gross and net information about certain instruments and transactions eligible for offset in the statement of financial position and certain instruments and transactions subject to an agreement similar to a master netting agreement. This information will enable users of the financial statements to understand the effect of those arrangements on its financial position. The new rules will become effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013, and interim periods within those annual periods. It is also required that the new disclosures are applied for all comparative periods presented. In January 2013, the FASB further amended this standard to limit its scope to derivatives, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, securities borrowings and lending transactions. We do not believe this amendment will have a significant effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements. While we are still finalizing our analysis, due to the scope limitation we also do not expect any significant changes to our footnote disclosures.
In February 2013, the FASB amended its standards on comprehensive income by requiring disclosure in the footnotes of information about amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by component. Specifically, the amendment will require disclosure of the line items of net income in which the item was reclassified only if it is reclassified to net income in its entirety in the same reporting period. It will also require cross reference to other disclosures for amounts that are not reclassified in their entirety in the same reporting period. The new disclosures will be required for us prospectively only for annual periods beginning January 1, 2013 and interim periods within those annual periods.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
No definition available.