REVENUE RECOGNITION SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES REVENUE RECOGNITION SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|3 Months Ended|
Apr. 01, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||Revenue Recognition Policies
Revenue Recognition Sales of Products
We sell to customers either through long-term arrangements or standalone purchase orders. Our long-term arrangements generally do not include committed volumes until underlying purchase orders are issued. Our performance obligations vary by contract, but may include diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, transmissions, controls systems, air handling systems, and electric power generation systems, batteries, parts, maintenance services, and extended coverage.
Typically, we recognize revenue on the products we sell at a point in time, generally in accordance with shipping terms, which reflects the transfer of control to the customer. Since control of construction projects transfer to the customer as the work is performed, revenue on these projects is recognized based on the percentage of inputs incurred to date compared to the total expected cost of inputs, which is reflective of the value transferred to the customer. Revenue is recognized under long-term
maintenance and other service agreements over the term of the agreement as underlying services are performed based on the percentage of the cost of services provided to date compared to the total expected cost of services to be provided under the contract. Sales of extended coverage are recognized based on the pattern of expected costs over the extended coverage period or, if such a pattern is unknown, on a straight-line basis over the coverage period as the customer is considered to benefit from our stand ready obligation over the coverage period. In all cases, we believe cost incurred is the most representative depiction of the extent of service performed to date on a particular contract.
Our arrangements may include the act of shipping products to our customers after the performance obligation related to that product has been satisfied. We have elected to account for shipping and handling as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer goods and have not allocated revenue to the shipping activity. All related shipping and handling costs are accrued at the time of shipment.
Our sales arrangements may include the collection of sales and other similar taxes that are then remitted to the related taxing authority. We have elected to present the amounts collected for these taxes net of the related tax expense rather than presenting them as additional revenue.
We grant credit limits and terms to customers based upon traditional practices and competitive conditions. Typical terms vary by market, but payments are generally due in 90 days or less from invoicing for most of our product and service sales, while payments on construction and other similar arrangements may be due on an installment basis.
For contracts where the time between cash collection and performance is less than one year, we have elected to use the practical expedient that allows us to ignore the possible existence of a significant financing component within the contract. For contracts where this time period exceeds one year, generally the timing difference is the result of business concerns other than financing. We do have a limited amount of customer financing for which we charge or impute interest, but such amounts are immaterial to our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income.
We provide various sales incentives to both our distribution network and OEM customers. These programs are designed to promote the sale of our products in the channel or encourage the usage of our products by OEM customers. When there is uncertainty surrounding these sales incentives, we may limit the amount of revenue we recognize under a contract until the uncertainty has been resolved. Sales incentives primarily fall into three categories:
For volume rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities for attaining specified volumes during a particular quarter or year. We consider the expected amount of these rebates at the time of the original sale as we determine the overall transaction price. We update our assessment of the amount of rebates that will be earned quarterly based on our best estimate of the volume levels the customer will reach during the measurement period. For market share rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities based on the percentage of their production that utilizes our product. These rebates are typically measured either quarterly or annually and we assess them at least quarterly to determine our current estimates of amounts expected to be earned. These estimates are considered in the determination of transaction price at the time of the original sale based on the current market shares, with adjustments made as the level changes. For aftermarket rebates, we provide incentives to promote sales to certain dealers and end-markets. These rebates are typically paid on a quarterly, or more frequent, basis and estimates are made at the end of each quarter as to the amount yet to be paid. These estimates are based on historical experience with the particular program.
The initial determination of the transaction price may also be impacted by expected product returns. Rights of return do not exist for the majority of our sales, other than for quality issues. We do offer certain return rights in our aftermarket business, where some aftermarket customers are permitted to return small amounts of parts and filters each year, and in our power generation business, which sells portable generators to retail customers. An estimate of future returns is accounted for at the time of sale as a reduction in the overall contract transaction price based on historical return rates.
Multiple Performance Obligations
Our sales arrangements may include multiple performance obligations. We identify each of the material performance obligations in these arrangements and allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on its relative selling price. In most cases, the individual performance obligations are also sold separately and we use that price as the basis for allocating revenue to the included performance obligations. When an arrangement includes multiple performance obligations and invoicing to the customer does not match the allocated portion of the transaction price, unbilled revenue or deferred revenue is recorded reflecting that difference. Unbilled and deferred revenue are discussed in more detail below.
Our long-term maintenance agreements often include a variable amount of transaction price. We are generally compensated under such arrangements on a cost per hour of usage basis. We typically can estimate the expected usage over the life of the contract, but reassess the transaction price each quarter and adjust our recognized revenue accordingly. Certain maintenance agreements apply to generators used to provide standby power, which have limited expectations of usage. These agreements may include monthly minimum payments, providing some certainty to the total transaction price. For these particular contracts that relate to standby power, we limit revenue recognized to date to an amount representing the total minimums earned to date under the contract plus any cumulative billings earned in excess of the minimums. We reassess the estimates of progress and transaction price on a quarterly basis. For prime power arrangements, revenue is not subject to such a constraint and is generally equal to the current estimate on a percentage of completion basis times the total expected revenue under the contract.
Most of our contracts are for a period of less than one year. We have certain long-term maintenance agreements, construction contracts and extended warranty coverage arrangements that span a period in excess of one year. The aggregate amount of the transaction price for long-term maintenance agreements and construction contracts allocated to performance obligations that have not been satisfied as of April 1, 2018, was $643 million. We expect to recognize the related revenue of $239 million over the next 12 months and $404 million over periods up to 10 years. See NOTE 10 ,"PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional disclosures on extended warranty coverage arrangements. Our other contracts generally are for a duration of less than one year or include payment terms that correspond to the value we are providing our customers.
Deferred and Unbilled Revenue
The timing of our billing does not always match the timing of our revenue recognition. When we are entitled to bill a customer in advance of when we are permitted to recognize revenue, we record deferred revenue. Deferred revenue may arise in construction contracts, where billings may occur in advance of performance or in accordance with specific milestones. Deferred revenue may also occur in long-term maintenance contracts, where billings are often based on usage of the underlying equipment, which generally follows a predictable pattern that often will result in the accumulation of collections in advance of our performance of the related maintenance services. Finally, deferred revenue exists in our extended coverage contracts, where the cash is collected prior to the commencement of the coverage period. Deferred revenue is included in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current liabilities for those expected to be recognized in revenue in a period of less than one year and long-term liabilities for those expected to be recognized as revenue in a period beyond one year. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue as (or when) control of the underlying product, project or service passes to the customer under the related contract.
When we are not entitled to bill a customer until a period after we have recognized the related revenue, we recognize unbilled revenue. Unbilled revenue is included in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current assets for those expected to be collected in a period of less than one year and long-term assets for those expected to be collected in a period beyond one year. Unbilled revenue relates to our right to consideration for our completed performance under a contract. Unbilled revenue generally arises from contractual provisions that delay a portion of the billings on genset deliveries until commissioning occurs. Unbilled revenue may also occur when billings trail the provision of service in construction and long-term maintenance contracts. We periodically assess our unbilled revenue for impairment.
The following is a summary of our unbilled and deferred revenue and related activity:
(1) Relates to revenue recognized in the period from amounts included in contract liabilities at the beginning of the period. Revenue recognized
in the period from performance obligations satisfied in previous periods was immaterial.
We did not record any impairment losses on our unbilled revenues during the three months ended April 1, 2018.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable represent amounts billed to customers and not yet collected or amounts that have been earned, but may not be billed until the passage of time, and are recorded when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, which approximates net realizable value, and generally do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is our best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in our existing accounts receivable. We determine the allowance based on our historical collection experience and by performing an analysis of our accounts receivable in light of the current economic environment. We review our allowance for doubtful accounts on a regular basis. In addition, when necessary, we provide an allowance for the full amount of specific accounts deemed to be uncollectible. Account balances are charged off against the allowance in the period in which we determine that it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The allowance for doubtful accounts balances for the periods ended April 1, 2018 and December 31, 2017, were $17 million and $16 million, respectively, and bad debt write-offs were not material.
We are required to record an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer and other costs to fulfill a contract not otherwise required to be immediately expensed when we expect to recover those costs. The only material incremental cost we incur is commission expense, which is generally incurred in the same period as the underlying revenue. Costs to fulfill a contract are generally limited to customer-specific engineering expenses that do not meet the definition of research and development expenses. As a practical expedient, we have elected to recognize these costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when the related contract period is less than one year. When the period exceeds one year, this asset is amortized over the life of the contract. We did not have any material capitalized balances at April 1, 2018.
In addition, we sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines and on certain components. We consider a warranty to be extended coverage in any of the following situations:
The consideration collected is initially deferred and is recognized as revenue in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred in performing services over the contract period. We compare the remaining deferred revenue balance quarterly to the estimated amount of future claims under extended warranty programs and provide an additional accrual when the deferred revenue balance is less than expected future costs. See NOTE 10, "PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional information.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef