Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Operations
We were founded in 1919 as Cummins Engine Company, a corporation in Columbus, Indiana and one of the first diesel engine manufacturers. In 2001, we changed our name to Cummins Inc. We are a global power leader that designs, manufactures, distributes and services diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, transmissions and electric power generation systems. We sell our products to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), distributors and other customers worldwide. We serve our customers through a network of approximately 500 wholly-owned and independent distributor locations and over 7,500 dealer locations in more than 190 countries and territories.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of all wholly-owned and majority-owned domestic and foreign subsidiaries where our ownership is more than 50 percent of outstanding equity interests except for majority-owned subsidiaries that are considered variable interest entities (VIEs) where we are not deemed to have a controlling financial interest. In addition, we also consolidate, regardless of our ownership percentage, VIEs for which we are deemed to have a controlling financial interest. Intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation. Where our ownership interest is less than 100 percent, the noncontrolling ownership interests are reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The noncontrolling ownership interest in our income, net of tax, is classified as "Net (loss) income attributable to noncontrolling interests" in our Consolidated Statements of Income.
We have variable interests in several businesses accounted for under the equity method of accounting that are deemed to be VIEs and are subject to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP) for variable interest entities. Most of these VIEs are unconsolidated.
Certain amounts for 2016 and 2015 have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Investments in Equity Investees
We use the equity method to account for our investments in joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence, generally represented by equity ownership or partnership equity of at least 20 percent but not more than 50 percent. Generally, under the equity method, original investments in these entities are recorded at cost and subsequently adjusted by our share of equity in income or losses after the date of acquisition. Investment amounts in excess of our share of an investee's net assets are amortized over the life of the related asset creating the excess. If the excess is goodwill, then it is not amortized. Equity in income or losses of each investee is recorded according to our level of ownership; if losses accumulate, we record our share of losses until our investment has been fully depleted. If our investment has been fully depleted, we recognize additional losses only when we are the primary funding source. We eliminate (to the extent of our ownership percentage) in our Consolidated Financial Statements the profit in inventory held by our equity method investees that has not yet been sold to a third-party. Our investments are classified as "Investments and advances related to equity method investees" in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our share of the results from joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances is reported in our Consolidated Statements of Income as "Equity, royalty and interest income from investees," and is reported net of all applicable income taxes.
Our foreign equity investees are presented net of applicable foreign income taxes in our Consolidated Statements of Income. Our remaining United States (U.S.) equity investees are partnerships (non-taxable), thus there is no difference between gross or net of tax presentation as the investees are not taxed. See NOTE 3, "INVESTMENTS IN EQUITY INVESTEES," for additional information.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of the Financial Statements
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts presented and disclosed in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Significant estimates and assumptions in these Consolidated Financial Statements require the exercise of judgment and are used for, but not limited to, allowance for doubtful accounts, estimates of future cash flows and other assumptions associated with goodwill and long-lived asset impairment tests, useful lives for depreciation and amortization, warranty programs, determination of discount rate and
other assumptions for pension and other postretirement benefit costs, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances, lease classification and contingencies. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be different from these estimates.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue, net of estimated costs of returns, allowances and sales incentives, when it is realized or realizable, which generally occurs when:
Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists;
The product has been shipped and legal title and all risks of ownership have been transferred;
The sales price is fixed or determinable; and
Payment is reasonably assured.
Products are generally sold on open account under credit terms customary to the geographic region of distribution. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and generally do not require collateral to secure our accounts receivable. For engines, service parts, service tools and other items sold to independent distributors and to partially-owned distributors accounted for under the equity method, revenues are recorded when title and risk of ownership transfers. This transfer is based on the agreement in effect with the respective distributor, which generally occurs when the products are shipped. To the extent of our ownership percentage, margins on sales to distributors accounted for under the equity method are deferred until the distributor sells the product to unrelated parties.
We provide various sales incentives to both our distribution network and our OEM customers. These programs are designed to promote the sale of our product in the channel or encourage the usage of our products by OEM customers. Sales incentives primarily fall into three categories:
Volume rebates;
Market share rebates; and
Aftermarket rebates.
For volume rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities for attaining specified volumes during a particular quarter or year. We accrue for the expected amount of these rebates at the time of the original sale and update our accruals quarterly based on our best estimate of the volume levels the customer will reach during the measurement period. For market share rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities based on the percentage of their production that utilizes our product. These rebates are typically measured either quarterly or annually and are accrued at the time of the original sale based on the current market shares, with adjustments made as the level changes. For aftermarket rebates, we provide incentives to promote sales to certain dealers and end-markets. These rebates are typically paid on a quarterly, or more frequent, basis and estimates are made at the end of each quarter as to the amount yet to be paid. These estimates are based on historical experience with the particular program. The incentives are classified as a reduction in sales in our Consolidated Statements of Income.
We classify shipping and handling billed to customers as sales in our Consolidated Statements of Income. Substantially all shipping and handling costs are included in "Cost of sales."
Rights of return do not exist for the majority of our sales, other than for quality issues. We do offer certain return rights in our aftermarket business, where some aftermarket customers are permitted to return small amounts of parts and filters each year and in our power systems business, which sells portable generators to retail customers. An estimate of future returns is accrued at the time of sale based on historical return rates.
Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation
We translate assets and liabilities of foreign entities to U.S. dollars, where the local currency is the functional currency, at year-end exchange rates. We translate income and expenses to U.S. dollars using weighted-average exchange rates for the year. We record adjustments resulting from translation in a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss (AOCL) and include the adjustments in net income only upon sale, loss of controlling financial interest or liquidation of the underlying foreign investment.
Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in current net income. For foreign entities where the U.S. dollar is the functional currency, including those operating in highly inflationary economies when applicable, we remeasure non-monetary balances and the related income statement using historical exchange rates. We include in income the resulting gains and losses, including the effect of derivatives in our Consolidated Statements of Income, which combined with transaction gains and losses amounted to a net loss of $6 million, $12 million and $18 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Fair Value Measurements
A three-level valuation hierarchy, based upon the observable and unobservable inputs, is used for fair value measurements. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions based on the best evidence available. These two types of inputs create the following fair value hierarchy:
Level 1 - Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets;
Level 2 - Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active and model-derived valuations whose significant inputs are observable; and
Level 3 - Instruments whose significant inputs are unobservable.
Derivative Instruments
We make use of derivative instruments in foreign exchange, commodity price and interest rate hedging programs. Derivatives currently in use are foreign currency forward contracts, commodity physical forward contracts, options and interest rate swaps. These contracts are used strictly for hedging and not for speculative purposes.
We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in interest rates. We manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations through the use of interest rate swaps. The objective of the swaps is to more effectively balance our borrowing costs and interest rate risk. The gain or loss on these derivative instruments as well as the offsetting gain or loss on the hedged item are recognized in current income as "Interest expense." For more detail on our interest rate swaps, see NOTE 9, "DEBT."
Due to our international business presence, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk. We transact in foreign currencies and have assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. Consequently, our income experiences some volatility related to movements in foreign currency exchange rates. In order to benefit from global diversification and after considering naturally offsetting currency positions, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts to minimize our existing exposures (recognized assets and liabilities) and hedge forecasted transactions. Foreign currency forward contracts are designated and qualify as foreign currency cash flow hedges under GAAP. The effective portion of the unrealized gain or loss on the forward contract is deferred and reported as a component of AOCL. When the hedged forecasted transaction (sale or purchase) occurs, the unrealized gain or loss is reclassified into income in the same line item associated with the hedged transaction in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects income.
To minimize the income volatility resulting from the remeasurement of net monetary assets and payables denominated in a currency other than the functional currency, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts, which are considered economic hedges. The objective is to offset the gain or loss from remeasurement with the gain or loss from the fair market valuation of the forward contract. These derivative instruments are not designated as hedges under GAAP.
We are exposed to fluctuations in commodity prices due to contractual agreements with component suppliers. In order to protect ourselves against future price volatility and, consequently, fluctuations in gross margins, we periodically enter into commodity physical forward contracts and zero-cost collar contracts with designated banks and other counterparties to fix the cost of certain raw material purchases with the objective of minimizing changes in inventory cost due to market price fluctuations. The physical forward contracts qualify for the normal purchases scope exceptions and are treated as purchase commitments. The commodity zero-cost collar contracts that represent an economic hedge, but are not designated for hedge accounting, are marked to market through earnings.
Income Tax Accounting
We determine our income tax expense using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Future tax benefits of net operating loss and credit carryforwards are also recognized as deferred tax assets. We evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets each quarter by assessing the likelihood of future profitability and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize our net deferred tax assets. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the tax assets to the net value management believes is more likely than not to be realized. In the event our operating performance deteriorates, future assessments could conclude that a larger valuation
allowance will be needed to further reduce the deferred tax assets. In addition, we operate within multiple taxing jurisdictions and are subject to tax audits in these jurisdictions. These audits can involve complex issues, which may require an extended period of time to resolve. We accrue for the estimated additional tax and interest that may result from tax authorities disputing uncertain tax positions. We have taken and we believe we have made adequate provisions for income taxes for all years that are subject to audit based upon the latest information available. A more complete description of our income taxes and the future benefits of our net operating loss and credit carryforwards is disclosed in NOTE 2, "INCOME TAXES."
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents are defined as short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase. The carrying amounts reflected in our Consolidated Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of these investments.
Years ended December 31,
In millions
Cash payments for income taxes, net of refunds



Cash payments for interest, net of capitalized interest



Marketable Securities
We account for marketable securities in accordance with GAAP for investments in debt and equity securities. We determine the appropriate classification of all marketable securities as "held-to-maturity," "available-for-sale" or "trading" at the time of purchase, and re-evaluate such classifications at each balance sheet date. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, all of our investments were classified as available-for-sale.
Available-for-sale (AFS) securities are carried at fair value with the unrealized gain or loss, net of tax, reported in other comprehensive income. Unrealized losses considered to be "other-than-temporary" are recognized currently in income. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method. The fair value of most investment securities is determined by currently available market prices. Where quoted market prices are not available, we use the market price of similar types of securities that are traded in the market to estimate fair value. See NOTE 4, "MARKETABLE SECURITIES," for a detailed description of our investments in marketable securities.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, which approximates net realizable value, and generally do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is our best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in our existing accounts receivable. We determine the allowance based on our historical collection experience and by performing an analysis of our accounts receivable in light of the current economic environment. We review our allowance for doubtful accounts on a regular basis. In addition, when necessary, we provide an allowance for the full amount of specific accounts deemed to be uncollectible. Account balances are charged off against the allowance in the period in which we determine that it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The allowance for doubtful accounts balances for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 were $16 million and $16 million, respectively.
Our inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, approximately 12 percent and 13 percent, respectively, of our consolidated inventories (primarily heavy-duty and high-horsepower engines and parts) were valued using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) cost method. The cost of other inventories is generally valued using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) cost method. Our inventories at interim and year-end reporting dates include estimates for adjustments related to annual physical inventory results and for inventory cost changes under the LIFO cost method. Due to significant movements of partially-manufactured components and parts between manufacturing plants, we do not internally measure, nor do our accounting systems provide, a meaningful segregation between raw materials and work-in-process. See NOTE 5, "INVENTORIES," for additional information.
Property, Plant and Equipment
We record property, plant and equipment, inclusive of assets under capital leases, at cost. We depreciate the cost of the majority of our property, plant and equipment using the straight-line method with depreciable lives ranging from 20 to 40 years for buildings and 3 to 15 years for machinery, equipment and fixtures. Capital lease amortization is recorded in depreciation expense. We expense normal maintenance and repair costs as incurred. Depreciation expense totaled $467 million, $434 million and $419 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. See NOTE 6, "PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT," for additional information.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of the carrying value of the long-lived assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. An impairment of a long-lived asset or asset group exists when the expected future pre-tax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) estimated to be generated by the asset or asset group is less than its carrying value. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such asset or asset group, an impairment loss is measured based on the difference between the estimated fair value and carrying value of the asset or asset group. Assumptions and estimates used to estimate cash flows in the evaluation of impairment and the fair values used to determine the impairment are subject to a degree of judgment and complexity. Any changes to the assumptions and estimates resulting from changes in actual results or market conditions from those anticipated may affect the carrying value of long-lived assets and could result in a future impairment charge. See NOTE 19, "IMPAIRMENT OF LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ASSETS," for additional information.
Under GAAP for goodwill, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform an annual two-step goodwill impairment test. We have elected this option on certain reporting units. The two-step impairment test is now only required if an entity determines through this qualitative analysis that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. In addition, the carrying value of goodwill must be tested for impairment on an interim basis in certain circumstances where impairment may be indicated. When we are required or opt to perform the two-step impairment test, the fair value of each reporting unit is estimated by discounting the after tax future cash flows less requirements for working capital and fixed asset additions. Our reporting units are generally defined as one level below an operating segment. However, there are two situations where we have aggregated two or more reporting units which share similar economic characteristics and thus are aggregated into a single reporting unit for testing purposes. These two situations are described further below:
Within our Components segment, our emission solutions and filtration businesses have been aggregated into a single reporting unit.
Our Distribution segment is considered a single reporting unit as it is managed geographically and all regions share similar economic characteristics and provide similar products and services.
Our valuation method requires us to make projections of revenue, operating expenses, working capital investment and fixed asset additions for the reporting units over a multi-year period. Additionally, management must estimate a weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects a market rate, for each reporting unit for use as a discount rate. The discounted cash flows are compared to the carrying value of the reporting unit and, if less than the carrying value, a separate valuation of the goodwill is required to determine if an impairment loss has occurred. In addition, we also perform a sensitivity analysis to determine how much our forecasts can fluctuate before the fair value of a reporting unit would be lower than its carrying amount. We performed the required procedures as of the end of our fiscal third quarter and determined that our goodwill was not impaired. At December 31, 2017, our recorded goodwill was $1,082 million, approximately 36 percent of which resided in the aggregated emission solutions and filtration reporting unit. For this reporting unit, the fair value exceeded its carrying value by a substantial margin. Approximately 50 percent and 4 percent of goodwill resides in our new automated transmissions reporting unit and our Brammo Inc. acquisition (not yet allocated to a segment), respectively. Since these businesses were just acquired in the second half of 2017, we did not perform an additional quantitative test as of the end of our third fiscal quarter. See NOTE 18, "ACQUISITIONS," for additional information on the acquisition related goodwill recorded at the respective acquisition dates. Changes in our projections or estimates, a deterioration of our operating results and the related cash flow effect or a significant increase in the discount rate could decrease the estimated fair value of our reporting units and result in a future impairment of goodwill. See NOTE 7, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
Other Intangible Assets
We capitalize other intangible assets, such as trademarks, patents, and customer relationships, that have been acquired either individually or with a group of other assets.  These intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from 3 to 25 years. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable over the remaining lives of the assets. See NOTE 7, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
We capitalize software that is developed or obtained for internal use. Software costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from 3 to 12 years. Software assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable over the remaining lives of the assets. Upgrades and enhancements are capitalized if they result in significant modifications that enable the software to perform tasks it was previously incapable of performing. Software maintenance, training, data conversion and business process reengineering costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred. See NOTE 7, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
We charge the estimated costs of warranty programs, other than product recalls, to cost of sales at the time products are sold and revenue is recognized. We use historical experience to develop the estimated liability for our various warranty programs. As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the nature and frequency of product recall programs, the liability for such programs is recorded when we commit to a recall action or when a recall becomes probable and estimable, which generally occurs when it is announced. The liability for these programs is reflected in the provision for warranties issued. We review and assess the liability for these programs on a quarterly basis. We also assess our ability to recover certain costs from our suppliers and record a receivable when we believe a recovery is probable. In addition to costs incurred on warranty and recall programs, from time to time we also incur costs related to customer satisfaction programs for items not covered by warranty. We accrue for these costs when agreement is reached with a specific customer. These costs are not included in the provision for warranties, but are included in cost of sales.
In addition, we sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines. The revenue collected is initially deferred and is recognized as revenue in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred in performing services over the contract period. We compare the remaining deferred revenue balance quarterly to the estimated amount of future claims under extended warranty programs and provide an additional accrual when the deferred revenue balance is less than expected future costs. See NOTE 8, "PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional information.
Research and Development
Our research and development program is focused on product improvements, product extensions, innovations and cost reductions for our customers. Research and development expenditures include salaries, contractor fees, building costs, utilities, testing, technical IT, administrative expenses and allocation of corporate costs and are expensed, net of contract reimbursements, when incurred. From time to time, we enter into agreements with customers and government agencies to fund a portion of the research and development costs of a particular project. We generally account for these reimbursements as an offset to the related research and development expenditure. Research and development expenses, net of contract reimbursements, were $734 million in 2017, $616 million in 2016 and $718 million in 2015. Contract reimbursements were $137 million in 2017, $131 million in 2016 and $98 million in 2015.
Related Party Transactions
In accordance with the provisions of various joint venture agreements, we may purchase products and components from our joint ventures, sell products and components to our joint ventures and our joint ventures may sell products and components to unrelated parties. Joint venture transfer prices may differ from normal selling prices. Certain joint venture agreements transfer product at cost, some transfer product on a cost-plus basis, and others transfer product at market value. Our related party sales are presented on the face of our Consolidated Statements of Income. Our related party purchases were not material to our financial position or results of operations.
Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted
In February 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) amended its standard on comprehensive income to provide an option for an entity to reclassify the stranded tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Legislation) that was passed in December of 2017 from accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) directly to retained earnings.  The stranded tax effects result from the remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities which were originally recorded in comprehensive income but whose remeasurement is reflected in the income statement.  This is a one-time amendment applicable only to the changes resulting from the Tax Legislation.  The standard is effective for us on January 1, 2019, and may be reflected retroactively to any period in which the impacts of the Tax Legislation are recognized.  The standard permits early adoption for any financial statements that have not been released as of the date of the revised standard. We elected to early adopt this standard in our 2017 financial statements using specific identification and as a result reclassified $126 million from
AOCI to retained earnings which is reflected in the rollforward of AOCI. This reclassification relates only to the change in the statutory tax rate. See NOTE 14, "ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE LOSS," for additional information.
In March 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to accounting for stock compensation, which became effective for us beginning January 1, 2017. The amendment replaced the requirement to record excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies in additional paid-in capital by recording all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies as income tax expense / benefit in the Consolidated Statements of Income and was adopted prospectively. In addition, the standard impacted our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flow retrospectively, as excess tax benefits are now required to be presented as an operating activity and the cash paid to tax authorities is required to be presented as a financing activity. This resulted in a net reclassification of $4 million and $6 million from operating to financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Finally, in accordance with the standard, we elected to continue our historical approach of estimating forfeitures during the award's vesting period and adjusting our estimate when it is no longer probable that the employee will fulfill the service condition. The adoption of the standard was not material to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued But Not Yet Effective
In August 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to accounting for derivatives and hedging. These amendments allow the initial hedge effectiveness assessment to be performed by the end of the first quarter in which the hedge is designated rather than concurrently with entering into the hedge transaction. The changes also expand the use of a periodic qualitative hedge effectiveness assessment in lieu of an ongoing quantitative assessment performed throughout the life of the hedge. The revision removes the requirement to record ineffectiveness on cash flow hedges through the income statement when a hedge is considered highly effective, instead deferring all related hedge gains and losses in "Other comprehensive income" until the hedged item impacts earnings. The modifications permit hedging the contractually-specified price of a component of a commodity purchase and revises certain disclosure requirements. The amendments are effective January 1, 2019 and early adoption is permitted in any interim period or fiscal year prior to the effective date. The revised standard is required to be adopted on a modified retrospective basis for any cash flow or net investment hedge relationships that exist on the date of adoption and prospectively for disclosures. We do not expect the amendments to have a material effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements and are still evaluating early adoption.
In March 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to the presentation of pension and other postretirement benefit costs in the financial statements beginning January 1, 2018. Under the new standard, we will be required to separate service costs from all other elements of pension costs and reflect the other elements of pension costs outside of operating income in our Consolidated Statements of Income. In addition, the standard will limit the amount eligible for capitalization (into inventory or self-constructed assets) to the amount of service cost. This portion of the standard will be applied on a prospective basis. The remainder of the new standard is effective for us on a retrospective basis. The retroactive adoption of this standard will result in a reduction in operating income and a corresponding increase in other income (primarily related to the return on pension assets) of $31 million and $48 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
In August 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments. The new standard will make eight targeted changes to how cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those fiscal years. The new standard will require adoption on a retrospective basis unless it is impracticable to apply, in which case it would be required to apply the amendments prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. We do not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
In June 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to accounting for credit losses on financial instruments. This amendment introduces new guidance for accounting for credit losses on instruments including trade receivables and held-to-maturity debt securities. The new rules are effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the accounting for leases. Under the new standard, lessees will now be required to recognize substantially all leases on the balance sheet as both a right-of-use-asset and a liability. The standard will continue to have two types of leases for income statement recognition purposes: operating leases and finance leases. Operating leases will result in the recognition of a single lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term similar to the treatment for operating leases under today's standards. Finance leases will result in an accelerated expense similar to the accounting for capital leases under today's standards. The determination of a lease classification as operating or finance will occur in a manner similar to today's standard. The new standard also contains amended guidance regarding the identification of embedded leases in service contracts and the identification of lease and non-lease components of an arrangement. The new standard is effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are still evaluating the impact the standard could have on our Consolidated Financial Statements, including our internal controls over financial
reporting. While we have not yet quantified the amount, we do expect the standard will have a material impact on our Consolidated Balance Sheets due to the recognition of additional assets and liabilities for operating leases.
In January 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the accounting for certain financial instruments. This amendment addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure. The new rules will become effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is not permitted. We do not expect the standard to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In May 2014, the FASB amended its standards related to revenue recognition which replaces all existing revenue recognition guidance and provides a single, comprehensive model for all contracts with customers. The revised standard contains principles to determine the measurement of revenue and timing of when it is recognized. The underlying principle is that we will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. Other major provisions include capitalization of certain contract costs, consideration of the time value of money in the transaction price and allowing estimation of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. The amendment also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in those judgments as well as assets recognized from costs incurred to fulfill these contracts.

The standard allows either full or modified retrospective adoption effective for annual and interim periods beginning January 1, 2018.
We will adopt the standard using the modified retrospective approach.

We identified a change in the manner in which we will account for certain license income. We license certain technology to our unconsolidated joint ventures that meet the definition of functional under the standard, which requires that revenue be recognized at a point in time rather than the current requirement of recognizing it over the license term. Using the modified retrospective adoption method, we will record an adjustment to our opening equity balance at January 1, 2018, to account for the differences between existing revenue recorded and what would have been recorded under the new standard for contracts for which we started recognizing revenue prior to the adoption date. We expect to record a credit to equity of approximately
$30 million before taxes. We do not expect a material impact on any individual year from this change.

We also identified transactions where revenue recognition is currently limited to the amount of billings not contingent on our future performance. With the allocation provisions of the new model, we expect to accelerate the timing of revenue recognition for amounts related to satisfied performance obligations that would be delayed under the current guidance. We do not expect the impact of this change to be material.

On an ongoing basis, we do not expect this amendment to have a material impact on our
Consolidated Financial Statements, including our internal controls over financial reporting. The revenue recognition disclosures will significantly expand under the new standard, specifically around the quantitative and qualitative information about performance obligations, changes in contract assets and liabilities and disaggregation of revenue.