Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2011


        We are subject to numerous lawsuits and claims arising out of the ordinary course of our business, including actions related to product liability; personal injury; the use and performance of our products; warranty matters; patent, trademark or other intellectual property infringement; contractual liability; the conduct of our business; tax reporting in foreign jurisdictions; distributor termination; workplace safety; and environmental matters. We also have been identified as a potentially responsible party at multiple waste disposal sites under U.S. federal and related state environmental statutes and regulations and may have joint and several liability for any investigation and remediation costs incurred with respect to such sites. We have denied liability with respect to many of these lawsuits, claims and proceedings and are vigorously defending such lawsuits, claims and proceedings. We carry various forms of commercial, property and casualty, product liability and other forms of insurance; however, such insurance may not be applicable or adequate to cover the costs associated with a judgment against us with respect to these lawsuits, claims and proceedings. We do not believe that these lawsuits are material individually or in the aggregate. While we believe we have also established adequate accruals for our expected future liability with respect to pending lawsuits, claims and proceedings, where the nature and extent of any such liability can be reasonably estimated based upon then presently available information, there can be no assurance that the final resolution of any existing or future lawsuits, claims or proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

        We conduct significant business operations in Brazil that are subject to the Brazilian federal, state and local labor, social security, tax and customs laws. While we believe we comply with such laws, they are complex, subject to varying interpretations and we are often engaged in litigation regarding the application of these laws to particular circumstances. In 2010, it was determined that we overpaid a Brazilian revenue based tax during the period 2004-2008. Our results include a recovery of $32 million recorded in cost of sales ($21 million after-tax) related to tax credits on imported products arising from an overpayment. This recovery has been excluded from segment results as it was not considered in our evaluation of operating results for the year.

        In June 2008, four of our sites in Southern Indiana, including our Technical Center, experienced extensive flood damage. In October 2011, we received $40 million from our insurance carriers to settle all outstanding 2008 flood claims. As a result, we recognized a gain of approximately $38 million ($24 million after-tax), net of any remaining flood related expenses, in "Other operating (expense) income, net" in our Consolidated Statements of Income.

U.S. Distributor Commitments

        Our distribution agreements with independent and partially-owned distributors generally have a renewable three-year term and are restricted to specified territories. Our distributors develop and maintain a network of dealers with which we have no direct relationship. Our distributors are permitted to sell other, noncompetitive products only with our consent. We license all of our distributors to use our name and logo in connection with the sale and service of our products, with no right to assign or sublicense the trademarks, except to authorized dealers, without our consent. Products are sold to the distributors at standard domestic or international distributor net prices, as applicable. Net prices are wholesale prices we establish to permit our distributors an adequate margin on their sales. Subject to local laws, we can generally refuse to renew these agreements upon expiration or terminate them upon written notice for inadequate sales, change in principal ownership and certain other reasons. Distributors also have the right to terminate the agreements upon 60-day notice without cause, or 30-day notice for cause. Upon termination or failure to renew, we are required to purchase the distributor's current inventory, signage and special tools, and may, at our option purchase other assets of the distributor, but are under no obligation to do so.

Other Guarantees and Commitments

        In addition to the matters discussed above, from time to time we enter into other guarantee arrangements, including guarantees of non-U.S. distributor financing, residual value guarantees on equipment under operating leases and other miscellaneous guarantees of third-party obligations. As of December 31, 2011, the maximum potential loss related to these other guarantees is $45 million ($18 million of which relates to the Beijing Foton guarantee discussed below and $19 million relates to the Cummins Olayan Energy Limited guarantee discussed below).

        We have arrangements with certain suppliers that require us to purchase minimum volumes or be subject to monetary penalties. The penalty amounts are less than our purchase commitments and essentially allow the supplier to recover their tooling costs in most instances. As of December 31, 2011, if we were to stop purchasing from each of these suppliers, the aggregate amount of the penalty would be approximately $40 million, of which $39 million relates to a contract with an engine parts supplier that extends to 2013. We do not currently anticipate paying any penalties under these contracts. In addition, we also have a "take or pay" contract with an emission solutions business supplier requiring us to purchase approximately $73 million annually from 2012 through 2018. These arrangements enable us to secure critical components.

        In July 2008, Beijing Foton Cummins Engine Company, a 50 percent owned entity accounted for under the equity method, entered into a line of credit agreement with a borrowing capacity of up to $190 million (at current exchange rates). The line was used primarily to fund equipment purchases for a new manufacturing plant which went into production in June 2009. As a part of this transaction, we guaranteed 50 percent of any outstanding borrowings up to a maximum guarantee of $95 million (at current exchange rates). A portion of this debt was collateralized in April 2011 by the assets of BFCEC and no longer requires partner guarantees. As of December 31, 2011, outstanding borrowings under this agreement were $129 million and our guarantee was $18 million (at current exchange rates). We recorded a liability for the fair value of this guarantee. The amount of the liability was less than $1 million. The offset to this liability was an increase in our investment in the joint venture.

        In February 2010, Cummins Olayan Energy Limited, a 49 percent owned entity accounted for under the equity method, executed a four-year $101 million (at current exchange rates) debt financing arrangement to acquire certain rental equipment assets. As a part of this transaction, we guaranteed 49 percent of the total outstanding loan amount or $50 million (at current exchange rates). As of December 31, 2011, outstanding borrowings under this agreement were $39 million and our guarantee was $19 million (at current exchange rates). We recorded a liability for the fair value of this guarantee. The amount of the liability was less than $1 million. The offset to this liability was an increase in our investment in the joint venture.

        We have guarantees with certain customers that require us to satisfactorily honor contractual or regulatory obligations, or compensate for monetary losses related to nonperformance. These performance bonds and other performance-related guarantees were $81 million and $78 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.


        Periodically, we enter into various contractual arrangements where we agree to indemnify a third-party against certain types of losses. Common types of indemnities include:

  • product liability and license, patent or trademark indemnifications,

    asset sale agreements where we agree to indemnify the purchaser against future environmental exposures related to the asset sold and

    any contractual agreement where we agree to indemnify the counter-party for losses suffered as a result of a misrepresentation in the contract.

        We regularly evaluate the probability of having to incur costs associated with these indemnities and accrue for expected losses that are probable. Because the indemnities are not related to specified known liabilities and due to their uncertain nature, we are unable to estimate the maximum amount of the potential loss associated with these indemnifications.

Joint Venture Commitments

        As of December 31, 2011, we have committed to invest an additional $82 million into existing joint ventures with $74 million to be funded in 2012.


        We lease certain manufacturing equipment, facilities, warehouses, office space and equipment, aircraft and automobiles for varying periods under lease agreements. Most of the leases are non-cancelable operating leases with fixed rental payments, expire over the next ten years and contain renewal provisions. Rent expense under these leases approximated:

  December 31,  
In millions
  2011   2010   2009  

Rent expense

  $ 169   $ 146   $ 130  

        The following is a summary of the leased property under capital leases by major classes:

balances at
December 31,
In millions
  2011   2010  


  $ 69   $ 68  


    110     106  


    7     7  

Less: Accumulated amortization

    (91 )   (74 )


  $ 95   $ 107  

        Following is a summary of the future minimum lease payments due under capital and operating leases, including leases in our rental business discussed below, with terms of more than one year at December 31, 2011, together with the net present value of the minimum payments due under capital leases:

In millions
  Capital Leases   Operating Leases  


  $ 35   $ 136  


    19     90  


    6     63  


    6     48  


    6     39  

After 2016

    22     121  

Total minimum lease payments

  $ 94   $ 497  


    (23 )      

Present value of net minimum lease payments

  $ 71        

        In addition, we have subleased certain of the facilities under operating lease to third parties. The future minimum lease payments due from lessees under those arrangements are $1 million per year for the years 2012 through 2016.

Sale and Leaseback Transaction Amendment and Extension

        During 2001, we entered into a sale-leaseback transaction with a financial institution with regard to certain heavy-duty engine manufacturing equipment. The lease was classified as an operating lease with a lease term of 11.5 years, expiring June 28, 2013. The financial institution created a grantor trust to act as the lessor in the arrangement. The financial institution owns all of the equity in the trust. The grantor trust has no assets other than the equipment and its rights to the lease agreement with us. The terms of the agreement contained a guarantee of the residual value of the equipment and in December 2003, the grantor trust (which acted as the lessor in the sale and leaseback transaction described above) was consolidated as a result of the adoption of new accounting standards for VIEs, due primarily to the existence of the residual value guarantee.

        In February 2009, we amended the lease agreement to extend the lease for an additional two years to June 2015 and we removed the residual value guarantee. As a result of removing the residual value guarantee, we were no longer required to consolidate the grantor trust and we deconsolidated the trust in the first quarter of 2009. With the deconsolidation, we were required to account for the leasing arrangement with the trust as a capital lease. The deconsolidation of the trust had minimal impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements as the present value of the minimum lease payments (including the extension) approximated the amount that was reported as noncontrolling interest as of the date of the amendment. The reduction in noncontrolling interests and increase in our capital lease liabilities was $35 million.

        In September 2011, we purchased the leased assets from the lessor for approximately $48 million. The amount exceeded the existing capital lease obligation by approximately $14 million. This excess was recorded as an increase to the book value of those assets and is being depreciated over the estimated remaining useful life of approximately 10 years.