SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Nature of Operations
We were founded in 1919 as Cummins Engine Company, a corporation in Columbus, Indiana and one of the first diesel engine manufacturers. In 2001, we changed our name to Cummins Inc. We are a global power leader that designs, manufactures, distributes and services diesel and natural gas engines and powertrain-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, transmissions, electric power generation systems, batteries and electrified power systems. We sell our products to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), distributors, dealers and other customers worldwide. We serve our customers through a network of approximately 600 wholly-owned and independent distributor locations and over 7,600 dealer locations in more than 190 countries and territories.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of all wholly-owned and majority-owned domestic and foreign subsidiaries where our ownership is more than 50 percent of outstanding equity interests except for majority-owned subsidiaries that are considered variable interest entities (VIEs) where we are not deemed to have a controlling financial interest. In addition, we also consolidate, regardless of our ownership percentage, VIEs or joint ventures for which we are deemed to have a controlling financial interest. Intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation. Where our ownership interest is less than 100 percent, the noncontrolling ownership interests are reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The noncontrolling ownership interest in our income, net of tax, is classified as "Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests" in our Consolidated Statements of Income.
We have variable interests in several businesses accounted for under the equity method of accounting that are deemed to be VIEs and are subject to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP) for variable interest entities. Most of these VIEs are unconsolidated.
Certain amounts for 2017 and 2016 have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Investments in Equity Investees
We use the equity method to account for our investments in joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence, generally represented by equity ownership or partnership equity of at least 20 percent but not more than 50 percent. Generally, under the equity method, original investments in these entities are recorded at cost and subsequently adjusted by our share of equity in income or losses after the date of acquisition. Investment amounts in excess of our share of an investee's net assets are amortized over the life of the related asset creating the excess. If the excess is goodwill, then it is not amortized. Equity in income or losses of each investee is recorded according to our level of ownership; if losses accumulate, we record our share of losses until our investment has been fully depleted. If our investment has been fully depleted, we recognize additional losses only when we are the primary funding source. We eliminate (to the extent of our ownership percentage) in our Consolidated Financial Statements the profit in inventory held by our equity method investees that has not yet been sold to a third-party. Our investments are classified as "Investments and advances related to equity method investees" in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our share of the results from joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances is reported in our Consolidated Statements of Income as "Equity, royalty and interest income from investees," and is reported net of all applicable income taxes.
Our foreign equity investees are presented net of applicable foreign income taxes in our Consolidated Statements of Income. Our remaining United States (U.S.) equity investees are partnerships (non-taxable), thus there is no difference between gross or net of tax presentation as the investees are not taxed. See NOTE 3, "INVESTMENTS IN EQUITY INVESTEES," for additional information.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of the Financial Statements
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts presented and disclosed in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Significant estimates and assumptions in these Consolidated Financial Statements require the exercise of judgment and are used for, but not limited to, estimates of future cash flows and other assumptions associated with goodwill and long-lived asset impairment tests, useful lives for depreciation and amortization, warranty programs, determination of discount rate and other assumptions for pensions
and other postretirement benefit costs, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances, lease classification and contingencies. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be different from these estimates.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted the new revenue recognition standard in accordance with GAAP on a modified retrospective basis. See "RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS" below for additional information.
Revenue Recognition Sales of Products
We sell to customers either through long-term arrangements or standalone purchase orders. Our long-term arrangements generally do not include committed volumes until underlying purchase orders are issued. Our performance obligations vary by contract, but may include diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, transmissions, power generation systems and construction related projects, batteries, battery systems, parts, maintenance services and extended warranty coverage.
Typically, we recognize revenue on the products we sell at a point in time, generally in accordance with shipping terms, which reflects the transfer of control to the customer. Since control of construction projects transfer to the customer as the work is performed, revenue on these projects is recognized based on the percentage of inputs incurred to date compared to the total expected cost of inputs, which is reflective of the value transferred to the customer. Revenue is recognized under long-term maintenance and other service agreements over the term of the agreement as underlying services are performed based on the percentage of the cost of services provided to date compared to the total expected cost of services to be provided under the contract. Sales of extended coverage are recognized based on the pattern of expected costs over the extended coverage period or, if such a pattern is unknown, on a straight-line basis over the coverage period as the customer is considered to benefit from our stand ready obligation over the coverage period. In all cases, we believe cost incurred is the most representative depiction of the extent of service performed to date on a particular contract.
Our arrangements may include the act of shipping products to our customers after the performance obligation related to that product has been satisfied. We have elected to account for shipping and handling as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer goods and have not allocated revenue to the shipping activity. All related shipping and handling costs are accrued at the time of shipment.
Our sales arrangements may include the collection of sales and other similar taxes that are then remitted to the related taxing authority. We have elected to present the amounts collected for these taxes net of the related tax expense rather than presenting them as additional revenue.
We grant credit limits and terms to customers based upon traditional practices and competitive conditions. Typical terms vary by market, but payments are generally due in 90 days or less from invoicing for most of our product and service sales, while payments on construction and other similar arrangements may be due on an installment basis.
For contracts where the time between cash collection and performance is less than one year, we have elected to use the practical expedient that allows us to ignore the possible existence of a significant financing component within the contract. For contracts where this time period exceeds one year, generally the timing difference is the result of business concerns other than financing. We do have a limited amount of customer financing for which we charge or impute interest, but such amounts are immaterial to our Consolidated Statements of Income.
We provide various sales incentives to both our distribution network and OEM customers. These programs are designed to promote the sale of our products in the channel or encourage the usage of our products by OEM customers. When there is uncertainty surrounding these sales incentives, we may limit the amount of revenue we recognize under a contract until the uncertainty has been resolved. Sales incentives primarily fall into three categories:
For volume rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities for attaining specified volumes during a particular quarter or year. We consider the expected amount of these rebates at the time of the original sale as we determine the overall transaction price. We update our assessment of the amount of rebates that will be earned quarterly based on our best estimate of the volume levels the customer will reach during the measurement period. For market share rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities based on the percentage of their production that utilizes our product. These rebates are typically measured either quarterly or annually and we assess them at least quarterly to determine our current estimates of amounts expected to be earned. These estimates are considered in the determination of transaction price at the time of the original sale based on the current market shares, with adjustments made as the level changes. For aftermarket rebates, we provide incentives to promote sales to certain dealers and end-markets. These rebates are typically paid on a quarterly, or more frequent basis. At the time of the sales, we consider the expected amount of these rebates when determining the overall transaction price. Estimates are adjusted at the end of each quarter based on the amounts yet to be paid. These estimates are based on historical experience with the particular program.
The initial determination of the transaction price may also be impacted by expected product returns. Rights of return do not exist for the majority of our sales other than for quality issues. We do offer certain return rights in our aftermarket business, where some aftermarket customers are permitted to return small amounts of parts and filters each year, and in our power generation business, which sells portable generators to retail customers. An estimate of future returns is accounted for at the time of sale as a reduction in the overall contract transaction price based on historical return rates.
Multiple Performance Obligations
Our sales arrangements may include multiple performance obligations. We identify each of the material performance obligations in these arrangements and allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on its relative selling price. In most cases, the individual performance obligations are also sold separately and we use that price as the basis for allocating revenue to the included performance obligations. When an arrangement includes multiple performance obligations and invoicing to the customer does not match the allocated portion of the transaction price, unbilled revenue or deferred revenue is recorded reflecting that difference. Unbilled and deferred revenue are discussed in more detail below.
Our long-term maintenance agreements often include a variable component of the transaction price. We are generally compensated under such arrangements on a cost per hour of usage basis. We typically can estimate the expected usage over the life of the contract, but reassess the transaction price each quarter and adjust our recognized revenue accordingly. Certain maintenance agreements apply to generators used to provide standby power, which have limited expectations of usage. These agreements may include monthly minimum payments, providing some certainty to the total transaction price. For these particular contracts that relate to standby power, we limit revenue recognized to date to an amount representing the total minimums earned to date under the contract plus any cumulative billings earned in excess of the minimums. We reassess the estimates of progress and transaction price on a quarterly basis. For prime power arrangements, revenue is not subject to such a constraint and is generally equal to the current estimate on a percentage of completion basis times the total expected revenue under the contract.
Most of our contracts are for a period of less than one year. We have certain long-term maintenance agreements, construction contracts and extended warranty coverage arrangements that span a period in excess of one year. The aggregate amount of the transaction price for long-term maintenance agreements and construction contracts allocated to performance obligations that have not been satisfied as of December 31, 2018, was $710 million. We expect to recognize the related revenue of $211 million over the next 12 months and $499 million over periods up to 10 years. See NOTE 9 ,"PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional disclosures on extended warranty coverage arrangements. Our other contracts generally are for a duration of less than one year, include payment terms that correspond to the timing of cost incurred when providing goods and services to our customers or represent sale-based royalties.
Deferred and Unbilled Revenue
The timing of our billing does not always match the timing of our revenue recognition. We record deferred revenue when we are entitled to bill a customer in advance of when we are permitted to recognize revenue. Deferred revenue may arise in construction contracts, where billings may occur in advance of performance or in accordance with specific milestones. Deferred revenue may also occur in long-term maintenance contracts, where billings are often based on usage of the underlying equipment, which generally follows a predictable pattern that often will result in the accumulation of collections in advance of
our performance of the related maintenance services. Finally, deferred revenue exists in our extended coverage contracts, where the cash is collected prior to the commencement of the coverage period. Deferred revenue is included in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current liabilities for the amount expected to be recognized in revenue in a period of less than one year and long-term liabilities for the amount expected to be recognized as revenue in a period beyond one year. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue when control of the underlying product, project or service passes to the customer under the related contract.
We recognize unbilled revenue when the revenue has been earned, but not yet billed. Unbilled revenue is included in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current assets for those expected to be collected in a period of less than one year and long-term assets for those expected to be collected in a period beyond one year. Unbilled revenue relates to our right to consideration for our completed performance under a contract. Unbilled revenue generally arises from contractual provisions that delay a portion of the billings on genset deliveries until commissioning occurs. Unbilled revenue may also occur when billings trail the provision of service in construction and long-term maintenance contracts. We periodically assess our unbilled revenue for impairment. We did not record any impairment losses on our unbilled revenues during 2018.
The following is a summary of our unbilled and deferred revenue and related activity:
(1) Relates to year-to-date revenues recognized from amounts included in deferred revenue at the beginning of the year. Revenue recognized in the period from performance obligations satisfied in previous periods was immaterial.
We are required to record an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer and other costs to fulfill a contract not otherwise required to be immediately expensed when we expect to recover those costs. The only material incremental cost we incur is commission expense, which is generally incurred in the same period as the underlying revenue. Costs to fulfill a contract are generally limited to customer-specific engineering expenses that do not meet the definition of research and development expenses. As a practical expedient, we have elected to recognize these costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when the related contract period is less than one year. When the period exceeds one year, this asset is amortized over the life of the contract. We did not have any material capitalized balances at December 31, 2018.
We sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines and on certain components. We consider a warranty to be extended coverage in any of the following situations:
The consideration collected is initially deferred and is recognized as revenue in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred in performing services over the contract period. We compare the remaining deferred revenue balance quarterly to the estimated amount of future claims under extended warranty programs and provide an additional accrual when the deferred revenue balance is less than expected future costs.
Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation
We translate assets and liabilities of foreign entities to U.S. dollars, where the local currency is the functional currency, at year-end exchange rates. We translate income and expenses to U.S. dollars using weighted-average exchange rates for the year. We record adjustments resulting from translation in a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss (AOCL) and include the adjustments in net income only upon sale, loss of controlling financial interest or liquidation of the underlying foreign investment.
Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in current net income. For foreign entities where the U.S. dollar is the functional currency, including those operating in highly inflationary economies when applicable, we remeasure non-monetary balances and the related income statement using historical exchange rates. We include in income the resulting gains and losses, including the effect of derivatives in our Consolidated Statements of Income, which combined with transaction gains and losses amounted to a net loss of $34 million, $6 million and $12 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Fair Value Measurements
A three-level valuation hierarchy, based upon the observable and unobservable inputs, is used for fair value measurements. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions based on the best evidence available. These two types of inputs create the following fair value hierarchy:
We make use of derivative instruments in foreign exchange, commodity price and interest rate hedging programs. Derivatives currently in use are foreign currency forward contracts, commodity physical forward contracts, options and interest rate swaps. These contracts are used strictly for hedging and not for speculative purposes.
We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in interest rates. We manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations through the use of interest rate swaps. The objective of the swaps is to more effectively balance our borrowing costs and interest rate risk. The gain or loss on these derivative instruments as well as the offsetting gain or loss on the hedged item are recognized in current income as "Interest expense." For more detail on our interest rate swaps, see NOTE 10, "DEBT."
Due to our international business presence, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk. We transact in foreign currencies and have assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. Consequently, our income experiences some volatility related to movements in foreign currency exchange rates. In order to benefit from global diversification and after considering naturally offsetting currency positions, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts to minimize our existing exposures (recognized assets and liabilities) and hedge forecasted transactions. Foreign currency forward contracts are designated and qualify as foreign currency cash flow hedges under GAAP. The effective portion of the unrealized gain or loss on the forward contract is deferred and reported as a component of AOCL. When the hedged forecasted transaction (sale or purchase) occurs, the unrealized gain or loss is reclassified into income in the same line item associated with the hedged transaction in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects income.
To minimize the income volatility resulting from the remeasurement of net monetary assets and payables denominated in a currency other than the functional currency, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts, which are considered economic hedges. The objective is to offset the gain or loss from remeasurement with the gain or loss from the fair market valuation of the forward contract. These derivative instruments are not designated as hedges under GAAP.
We are exposed to fluctuations in commodity prices due to contractual agreements with component suppliers. In order to protect ourselves against future price volatility and, consequently, fluctuations in gross margins, we periodically enter into commodity physical forward contracts and zero-cost collar contracts with designated banks and other counterparties to fix the cost of certain raw material purchases with the objective of minimizing changes in inventory cost due to market price fluctuations. The physical forward contracts qualify for the normal purchases scope exceptions and are treated as purchase commitments. The commodity zero-cost collar contracts that represent an economic hedge, but are not designated for hedge accounting, are marked to market through earnings.
Income Tax Accounting
We determine our income tax expense using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. Future tax benefits of net operating loss and credit carryforwards are also recognized as deferred tax assets. We evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets each quarter by assessing the likelihood of future profitability and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize our net deferred tax assets. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the tax assets to the net value management believes is more likely than not to be realized. In the event our operating performance deteriorates, future assessments could conclude that a larger valuation
allowance will be needed to further reduce the deferred tax assets. In addition, we operate within multiple taxing jurisdictions and are subject to tax audits in these jurisdictions. These audits can involve complex issues, which may require an extended period of time to resolve. We accrue for the estimated additional tax and interest that may result from tax authorities disputing uncertain tax positions. We have taken and we believe we have made adequate provisions for income taxes for all years that are subject to audit based upon the latest information available. A more complete description of our income taxes and the future benefits of our net operating loss and credit carryforwards is disclosed in NOTE 4, "INCOME TAXES."
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents are defined as short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase. The carrying amounts reflected in our Consolidated Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of these investments.
We account for marketable securities in accordance with GAAP for investments in debt and equity securities. Effective January 1, 2018 and forward, with the adoption of the new Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) standard, only debt securities are classified as "held-to-maturity," "available-for-sale" or "trading". We determine the appropriate classification of debt securities at the time of purchase, and re-evaluate such classifications at each balance sheet date. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, all of our debt securities were classified as available-for-sale.
With the adoption of the new standard, debt and equity securities are carried at fair value with the unrealized gain or loss, net of tax, reported in other comprehensive income and other income, respectively. For debt securities, unrealized losses considered to be "other-than-temporary" are recognized currently in other income. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method. The fair value of most investment securities is determined by currently available market prices. Where quoted market prices are not available, we use the market price of similar types of securities that are traded in the market to estimate fair value. See "RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS" section below for additional information and NOTE 5, "MARKETABLE SECURITIES," for a detailed description of our investments in marketable securities.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable represent amounts billed to customers and not yet collected or amounts that have been earned, but may not be billed until the passage of time, and are recorded when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, which approximates net realizable value, and generally do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is our best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in our existing accounts receivable. We determine the allowance based on our historical collection experience and by performing an analysis of our accounts receivable in light of the current economic environment. We review our allowance for doubtful accounts on a regular basis. In addition, when necessary, we provide an allowance for the full amount of specific accounts deemed to be uncollectible. Account balances are charged off against the allowance in the period in which we determine that it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The allowance for doubtful accounts balances were $15 million and $16 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, and 2017, respectively, and bad debt write-offs were not material.
Our inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, approximately 13 percent and 12 percent, respectively, of our consolidated inventories (primarily heavy-duty and high-horsepower engines and parts) were valued using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) cost method. The cost of other inventories is generally valued using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) cost method. Our inventories at interim and year-end reporting dates include estimates for adjustments related to annual physical inventory results and for inventory cost changes under the LIFO cost method. Due to significant movements of partially-manufactured components and parts between manufacturing plants, we do not internally measure, nor do our accounting systems provide, a meaningful segregation between raw materials and work-in-process. See NOTE 6, "INVENTORIES," for additional information.
Property, Plant and Equipment
We record property, plant and equipment, inclusive of assets under capital leases, at cost. We depreciate the cost of the majority of our property, plant and equipment using the straight-line method with depreciable lives ranging from 20 to 40 years for buildings and 3 to 15 years for machinery, equipment and fixtures. Capital lease amortization is recorded in depreciation expense. We expense normal maintenance and repair costs as incurred. Depreciation expense totaled $455 million, $467 million and $434 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. See NOTE 7, "PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT," for additional information.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of the carrying value of the long-lived assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. An impairment of a long-lived asset or asset group exists when the expected future pre-tax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) estimated to be generated by the asset or asset group is less than its carrying value. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such asset or asset group, an impairment loss is measured based on the difference between the estimated fair value and carrying value of the asset or asset group. Assumptions and estimates used to estimate cash flows in the evaluation of impairment and the fair values used to determine the impairment are subject to a degree of judgment and complexity. Any changes to the assumptions and estimates resulting from changes in actual results or market conditions from those anticipated may affect the carrying value of long-lived assets and could result in a future impairment charge.
Under GAAP for goodwill, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform an annual quantitative goodwill impairment test. We have elected this option on certain reporting units. The quantitative impairment test is only required if an entity determines through this qualitative analysis that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. In addition, the carrying value of goodwill must be tested for impairment on an interim basis in certain circumstances where impairment may be indicated. We adopted the FASB's revised rules for goodwill impairment testing in 2018, which simplified the subsequent measurement of goodwill by removing the second step of the two-step impairment test. The amendment requires an entity to perform its annual, or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An impairment charge should be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value.
When we are required or opt to perform the quantitative impairment test, the fair value of each reporting unit is estimated by discounting the after tax future cash flows less requirements for working capital and fixed asset additions. Our reporting units are generally defined as one level below an operating segment. However, there are two situations where we have aggregated two or more reporting units which share similar economic characteristics and thus are aggregated into a single reporting unit for testing purposes. These two situations are described further below:
Our valuation method requires us to make projections of revenue, operating expenses, working capital investment and fixed asset additions for the reporting units over a multi-year period. Additionally, management must estimate a weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects a market rate, for each reporting unit for use as a discount rate. The discounted cash flows are compared to the carrying value of the reporting unit and, if less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as a goodwill impairment loss. In addition, we also perform a sensitivity analysis to determine how much our forecasts can fluctuate before the fair value of a reporting unit would be lower than its carrying amount. We perform the required procedures as of the end of our fiscal third quarter. We determined that the automated transmission business is our only reporting unit with material goodwill where the estimated fair value does not substantially exceed the carrying value. The estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount by approximately 21 percent. Total goodwill in this reporting unit is $544 million and the total carrying amount at the time of the evaluation was $1,200 million. This reporting unit is made up of only one business, our joint venture with Eaton (Eaton Cummins Automated Transmission Technologies) which was acquired and recorded at fair value in the third quarter of 2017. As a result, we did not expect that the estimated fair value would exceed the carrying value by a significant amount.
At December 31, 2018, our recorded goodwill was $1,126 million, approximately 48 percent of which resided in the automated transmissions reporting unit, 34 percent in the aggregated emission solutions and filtration reporting unit, 8 percent in the electrified power reporting unit and 7 percent in the distribution reporting unit. Changes in our projections or estimates, a deterioration of our operating results and the related cash flow effect or a significant increase in the discount rate could decrease the estimated fair value of our reporting units and result in a future impairment of goodwill. See NOTE 8, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
Other Intangible Assets
We capitalize other intangible assets, such as trademarks, patents and customer relationships, that have been acquired either individually or with a group of other assets. These intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from 3 to 25 years. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable over the remaining lives of the assets. See NOTE 8, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
We capitalize software that is developed or obtained for internal use. Software costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from 3 to 12 years. Software assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable over the remaining lives of the assets. Upgrades and enhancements are capitalized if they result in significant modifications that enable the software to perform tasks it was previously incapable of performing. Software maintenance, training, data conversion and business process reengineering costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred. See NOTE 8, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
We charge the estimated costs of warranty programs, other than product campaigns, to cost of sales at the time products are sold and revenue is recognized. We use historical experience to develop the estimated liability for our various warranty programs. Factors considered in developing these estimates included component failure rates, repair costs and the point of failure within the product life cycle. As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the nature and frequency of product campaigns, the liability for such campaigns is recorded when we commit to a recall action or when a recall becomes probable and estimable, which generally occurs when it is announced. The liability for these campaigns is reflected in the provision for warranties issued. We review and assess the liability for these programs on a quarterly basis. We also assess our ability to recover certain costs from our suppliers and record a receivable when we believe a recovery is probable. In addition to costs incurred on warranty and product campaigns, from time to time we also incur costs related to customer satisfaction programs for items not covered by warranty. We accrue for these costs when agreement is reached with a specific customer. These costs are not included in the provision for warranties, but are included in cost of sales. In addition, we sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines. See Extended Warranty policy discussion above and NOTE 9, "PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional information.
Research and Development
Our research and development program is focused on product improvements, product extensions, innovations and cost reductions for our customers. Research and development expenditures include salaries, contractor fees, building costs, utilities, testing, technical IT, administrative expenses and allocation of corporate costs and are expensed, net of contract reimbursements, when incurred. From time to time, we enter into agreements with customers and government agencies to fund a portion of the research and development costs of a particular project. We generally account for these reimbursements as an offset to the related research and development expenditure. Research and development expenses, net of contract reimbursements, were $894 million, $734 million and $616 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Contract reimbursements were $120 million, $137 million and $131 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Related Party Transactions
In accordance with the provisions of various joint venture agreements, we may purchase products and components from our joint ventures, sell products and components to our joint ventures and our joint ventures may sell products and components to unrelated parties. Joint venture transfer prices may differ from normal selling prices. Certain joint venture agreements transfer product at cost, some transfer product on a cost-plus basis, and others transfer product at market value. Our related party sales are presented on the face of our Consolidated Statements of Income. Our related party purchases were not material to our financial position or results of operations.
RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted
In May 2014, the FASB amended its standards related to revenue recognition to replace all existing revenue recognition guidance and provide a single, comprehensive model for all contracts with customers. The revised standard contains principles to determine the measurement of revenue and timing of when it is recognized. The underlying principle is that we recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. Other major provisions include capitalization of certain contract costs, consideration of the time value of money in the transaction price and allowing estimation of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. The amendment also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in those judgments as well as assets recognized from costs incurred to fulfill these contracts.
The standard allowed for either full or modified retrospective adoption effective for annual and interim periods beginning January 1, 2018 and we adopted using the modified retrospective approach. We elected to apply this guidance retrospectively only to contracts that were not completed at January 1, 2018.
We identified a change in the manner in which we account for certain license income. We license certain technology to our unconsolidated joint ventures that meets the definition of functional under the standard, which requires that revenue be recognized at a point in time rather than the previous requirement of recognizing it over the license term. Using the modified retrospective adoption method, we recorded an adjustment to our opening equity balance at January 1, 2018, to account for the differences between existing license income recorded and what would have been recorded under the new standard for contracts for which we started recognizing revenue prior to the adoption date. There was not a material impact on any individual year from this change.
We also identified transactions where revenue recognition was historically limited to the amount of billings not contingent on our future performance. With the allocation provisions of the new model, we accelerated the timing of revenue recognition for amounts related to satisfied performance obligations that would be delayed under the historical guidance. The impact of this change was not material.
On an ongoing basis, this amendment is not expected to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements including our internal controls over financial reporting, but resulted in expanded disclosures in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
We recorded a net increase to opening retained earnings of $28 million, net of tax, as of January 1, 2018, due to the cumulative impact of adopting the new revenue standard, with the impact primarily related to our technology licenses that now qualify for point in time recognition rather than over time. The impact to any individual financial statement line item as a result of applying the new standard, as compared to the old standard, was not material for the year ended December 31, 2018.
In August 2018, the FASB amended its standards related to the disclosures of pension and other postretirement benefit plans in the financial statements. The amendments removed certain existing disclosure requirements and added the requirement to disclose an explanation of the reasons for significant gains and losses related to changes in the benefit obligation for the period. The amendments also clarified the existing disclosure requirements related to the projected benefit obligation (PBO), the fair value of plan assets for plans with PBOs in excess of plan assets and the accumulated benefit obligation (ABO) and fair value of plan assets for plans with ABOs in excess of plan assets. These amendments are required to be applied on a retrospective basis to all periods presented. We early adopted the amendments at December 31, 2018.
In March 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to the presentation of pension and other postretirement benefit costs in the financial statements beginning January 1, 2018. Under the new standard, we are required to separate service costs from all other elements of pension costs and reflect the other elements of pension costs outside of operating income in our Consolidated Statements of Income. In addition, the standard limits the amount eligible for capitalization (into inventory or self-constructed assets) to the amount of service cost. This portion of the standard was applied on a prospective basis. The remainder of the new standard was applied on a retrospective basis using a practical expedient as the estimation basis for the reclassification of prior period non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost from operating income to non-operating income. As a result, we revised our Consolidated Statements of Income by the following amounts:
In January 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to goodwill impairment testing to simplify the annual testing process. Under the amendment, the impairment of goodwill is now calculated as the difference between the fair value of the reporting unit and the carrying value of the reporting unit. Step two of the former impairment model is no longer required. We early adopted this standard in the fourth quarter of 2018 as allowed by the amendment, in order to streamline our impairment testing process. The standard applies prospectively beginning with our assessments performed in the fourth quarter. As we did not have any impairments of goodwill during the year, adoption of the standard did not have an impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments which became effective for us beginning January 1, 2018. The new standard made eight targeted changes to how cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the accounting for certain financial instruments which became effective for us beginning January 1, 2018. This amendment addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure. The standard resulted in a cumulative effect increase to opening retained earnings of $2 million in our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued But Not Yet Effective
In August 2018, the FASB issued a new standard that aligns the accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement accounted for as a service contract with the model currently used for internal use software costs. Under the new standard, costs that meet certain criteria will be required to be capitalized on the balance sheet and subsequently amortized over the term of the hosting arrangement. The standard is effective for us beginning on January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The standard allows for either prospective or retrospective transition. We are still evaluating the impact of this standard on our financial statements.
In August 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to accounting for derivatives and hedging. These amendments allow the initial hedge effectiveness assessment to be performed by the end of the first quarter in which the hedge is designated rather than concurrently with entering into the hedge transaction. The changes also expand the use of a periodic qualitative hedge effectiveness assessment in lieu of an ongoing quantitative assessment performed throughout the life of the hedge. The revision removes the requirement to record ineffectiveness on cash flow hedges through the income statement when a hedge is considered highly effective, instead deferring all related hedge gains and losses in other comprehensive income until the hedged item impacts earnings. The modifications permit hedging the contractually-specified price of a component of a commodity purchase and revises certain disclosure requirements. The amendments are effective January 1, 2019. The revised standard is required to be adopted on a modified retrospective basis for any cash flow or net investment hedge relationships that exist on the date of adoption and prospectively for disclosures. We do not expect the amendments to have a material effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In June 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to accounting for credit losses on financial instruments. This amendment introduces new guidance for accounting for credit losses on instruments including trade receivables and held-to-maturity debt securities. The new rules are effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the accounting for leases. Under the new standard, lessees will now be required to recognize substantially all leases on the balance sheet as both a right-of-use asset and a liability. The standard will continue to have two types of leases for income statement recognition purposes: operating leases and finance leases. Operating leases will result in the recognition of a single lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease termsimilar to the treatment for operating leases under today's standards. Finance leases will result in an accelerated expense similar to the accounting for capital leases under today's standards. The determination of a lease classification as operating or finance will occur in a manner similar to today's standard. The new standard also contains amended guidance regarding the identification of embedded leases in service contracts and the identification of lease and non-lease components of an arrangement. The new standard is effective on January 1, 2019 and we will adopt on a modified retrospective basis with a cumulative effect adjustment, if any, to be recorded in retained earnings on January 1, 2019. We do not expect this adjustment to be material. Based on our current lease portfolio, adoption of the standard will result in an increase in operating lease assets and liabilities in a range of $445 million to $495 million with an immaterial impact on our Consolidated Statements of Income; however this estimate is subject to change as we finalize our implementation. We are implementing enhanced internal controls and a software solution to comply with the requirements of the standard.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef