|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Segment Reporting [Abstract]|
NOTE 20. OPERATING SEGMENTS
Operating segments under GAAP are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM), or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. Our CODM is the President and Chief Operating Officer.
Our reportable operating segments consist of Engine, Distribution, Components, Power Systems and Electrified Power. This reporting structure is organized according to the products and markets each segment serves. The Engine segment produces engines (15 liters and less in size) and associated parts for sale to customers in on-highway and various off-highway markets. Our engines are used in trucks of all sizes, buses and recreational vehicles, as well as in various industrial applications, including construction, agriculture, power generation systems and other off-highway applications. The Distribution segment includes wholly-owned and partially-owned distributorships engaged in wholesaling engines, generator sets and service parts, as well as performing service and repair activities on our products and maintaining relationships with various OEMs throughout the world. The Components segment sells filtration products, aftertreatment systems, turbochargers, electronics, fuel systems and transmissions. The Power Systems segment is an integrated power provider, which designs, manufactures and sells engines (16 liters and larger) for industrial applications (including mining, oil and gas, marine and rail), standby and prime power generator sets, alternators and other power components.
We formed the Electrified Power segment, effective January 1, 2018, which designs, manufactures, sells and supports electrified power systems ranging from fully electric to hybrid solutions along with innovative components and subsystems to serve all our markets as they adopt electrification, meeting the needs of our OEM partners and end customers. We currently offer the Cummins PowerDrive series of fully electric and hybrid powertrain systems targeting various applications in the Class 4-8 commercial vehicle markets and are developing the Cummins Battery Electric System and the Cummins Hybrid Power Plug-In System for the urban bus market, which are expected to launch in 2019 and 2020, respectively. We also design and manufacture battery modules, packs and systems for commercial, industrial and material handling applications. We use a range of cell chemistries which are suitable for pure electric, hybrid and plug-in hybrid applications. In addition to electrified powertrains for urban buses, we intend to deliver product offerings to other markets as they adopt electric solutions, including, but not limited to, pick-up and delivery applications and industrial markets. We invest in and utilize our internal research and development capabilities, along with strategic acquisitions and partnerships, to meet our objectives.
Effective January 1, 2018, we changed our segment measure of profitability to EBITDA (defined as earnings before interest expense, income taxes, noncontrolling interests, depreciation and amortization) as the primary basis for the CODM to evaluate the performance of each of our reportable operating segments. EBITDA assists investors and debt holders in comparing our performance on a consistent basis without regard for depreciation and amortization, which can vary significantly depending upon many factors. Prior periods have been revised to reflect the current presentation. Segment amounts exclude certain expenses not specifically identifiable to segments.The accounting policies of our operating segments are the same as those applied in our Consolidated Financial Statements. We prepared the financial results of our operating segments on a basis that is consistent with the manner in which we internally disaggregate financial information to assist in making internal operating decisions. We allocate certain common costs and expenses, primarily corporate functions, among segments differently than we would for stand-alone financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. These include certain costs and expenses of shared services, such as information technology, human resources, legal, finance and supply chain management. We do not allocate changes in cash surrender value of corporate owned life insurance to individual segments. EBITDA may not be consistent with measures used by other companies.Summarized financial information regarding our reportable operating segments at December 31, is shown in the table below:
(Table continued on next page)
(8)Power Systems segment EBITDA included a $17 million gain on the sale of an equity investee for the year ended December 31, 2016. See Note 3, "INVESTMENTS IN EQUITY INVESTEES," for additional information.A reconciliation of our segment information to the corresponding amounts in the Consolidated Statements of Income is shown in the table below:
A reconciliation of our segment net assets to the corresponding amounts in the Consolidated Balance Sheets is shown in the table below:
See Note 2, "DISAGGREGATION OF REVENUE," for segment net sales by geographic area.
Long-lived assets include property, plant and equipment, net of depreciation, investments and advances to equity investees and other assets, excluding deferred tax assets, refundable taxes and deferred debt expenses. Long-lived segment assets by geographic area were as follows:
The entire disclosure for reporting segments including data and tables. Reportable segments include those that meet any of the following quantitative thresholds a) it's reported revenue, including sales to external customers and intersegment sales or transfers is 10 percent or more of the combined revenue, internal and external, of all operating segments b) the absolute amount of its reported profit or loss is 10 percent or more of the greater, in absolute amount of 1) the combined reported profit of all operating segments that did not report a loss or 2) the combined reported loss of all operating segments that did report a loss c) its assets are 10 percent or more of the combined assets of all operating segments.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef