Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Operations
We were founded in 1919 as Cummins Engine Company, a corporation in Columbus, Indiana and one of the first diesel engine manufacturers. In 2001, we changed our name to Cummins Inc. We are a global power leader that designs, manufactures, distributes and services diesel, natural gas, electric and hybrid powertrains and powertrain-related components including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, automated transmissions, axles, drivelines, brakes, suspension systems, electric power generation systems, batteries, electrified power systems, electric powertrains, hydrogen production and fuel cell products. We sell our products to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), distributors, dealers and other customers worldwide. We serve our customers through a service network of approximately 460 wholly-owned, joint venture and independent distributor locations and more than 10,000 Cummins certified dealer locations in approximately 190 countries and territories.
Meritor Acquisition
On August 3, 2022, we completed the acquisition of Meritor, Inc. (Meritor) with a purchase price of $2.9 billion (including debt repaid concurrent with the acquisition). Our consolidated results and segment results include Meritor's activity since the date of acquisition. Meritor was split into the newly formed axles and brakes business and electric powertrain. The results for the axles and brakes business are included in our Components segment while the electric powertrain portion is included in our New Power segment. See NOTE 2, "ACQUISITIONS," for additional information.
Reporting Period
Beginning in 2022, we transitioned to a Gregorian calendar with our reporting period ending on the last day of the quarterly calendar period. In 2021 and prior, our reporting period ended on the Sunday closest to the last day of the quarterly calendar period. Our fiscal year ends on December 31, regardless of the day of the week on which December 31 falls.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP). All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
We include the accounts of all wholly-owned and majority-owned domestic and foreign subsidiaries where our ownership is more than 50 percent of outstanding equity interests except for majority-owned subsidiaries that are considered variable interest entities (VIEs) where we are not deemed to have a controlling financial interest. In addition, we also consolidate, regardless of our ownership percentage, VIEs or joint ventures for which we are deemed to have a controlling financial interest. We have variable interests in several businesses accounted for under the equity method of accounting, however most of these VIEs are unconsolidated.
For consolidated entities where our ownership interest is less than 100 percent, the noncontrolling ownership interests are reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The noncontrolling ownership interest in our income, net of tax, is classified as "Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests" in our Consolidated Statements of Net Income.
Certain amounts for 2021 and 2020 were reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
During the third quarter of 2022, we determined that a put right held by a minority shareholder in one of our subsidiaries, which became exercisable in September 2022, was incorrectly classified as noncontrolling interests (NCI) as opposed to mezzanine equity in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Because the put right was exercisable at fair value (as defined in the governing documents of the subsidiary), the NCI should have also been reflected at fair value at each balance sheet date with an offset to additional paid-in-capital (APIC). As a result, we have revised our historical financial statements to reflect the NCI at its estimated fair value as redeemable noncontrolling interests in our Consolidated Balance Sheets with a corresponding offset in NCI and APIC. This error did not impact our Consolidated Statements of Net Income, Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income or Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for any period. The amounts reclassified from NCI and revisions to APIC were as follows:
In millions Noncontrolling Interests Additional Paid-in Capital Total Correction to Mezzanine Equity
December 31, 2019 $ 58  $ —  $ 58 
December 31, 2020 51  231  282 
December 31, 2021 38  328  366 
March 31, 2022 34  358  392 
June 30, 2022 27  199  226 
See NOTE 16, "REDEEMABLE NONCONTROLLING INTERESTS," for further information regarding the put right. We have concluded the correction of this error does not have a material impact to our previously issued annual and interim consolidated financial statements.
Investments in Equity Investees
We use the equity method to account for our investments in joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence, generally represented by equity ownership or partnership equity of at least 20 percent but not more than 50 percent. Generally, under the equity method, original investments in these entities are recorded at cost and subsequently adjusted by our share of equity in income or losses after the date of acquisition. Investment amounts in excess of our share of an investee's net assets are amortized over the life of the related asset creating the excess, except goodwill which is not amortized. Equity in income or losses of each investee is recorded according to our level of ownership; if losses accumulate, we record our share of losses until our investment has been fully depleted. If our investment has been fully depleted, we recognize additional losses only when we are the primary funding source. We eliminate (to the extent of our ownership percentage) in our Consolidated Financial Statements the profit in inventory held by our equity method investees that has not yet been sold to a third-party. Dividends received from equity method investees reduce the amount of our investment when received and do not impact our earnings. Our investments are classified as Investments and advances related to equity method investees in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our share of the results from joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances is reported in our Consolidated Statements of Net Income as Equity, royalty and interest income from investees, and is reported net of all applicable income taxes.
Our share of the results from our foreign equity investees are presented net of applicable foreign income taxes in our Consolidated Statements of Net Income. Our remaining U.S. equity investees are partnerships (non-taxable), thus there is no difference between gross or net of tax presentation as the investees are not taxed. See NOTE 4, "INVESTMENTS IN EQUITY INVESTEES," for additional information.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of the Financial Statements
Preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts presented and disclosed in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Significant estimates and assumptions in these Consolidated Financial Statements require the exercise of judgement and are used for, but not limited to, estimates of future cash flows and other assumptions associated with the valuation of intangible assets and goodwill and long-lived asset impairment tests, useful lives for depreciation and amortization, warranty programs, determination of discount rate and other assumptions for pensions and other postretirement benefit obligations and related costs, income taxes, deferred tax valuation allowances, contingencies and allowances for doubtful accounts. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be different from these estimates.
Current supply chain disruptions and related future financial impacts cannot be estimated at this time. This uncertainty could have an impact on certain estimates used in the preparation of our 2022 financial results.
Revenue From Contracts with Customers
Revenue Recognition Sales of Products
We sell to customers either through long-term arrangements or standalone purchase orders. Our long-term arrangements generally do not include committed volumes until underlying purchase orders are issued. Our performance obligations vary by contract, but may include diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, automated transmissions, engine braking, cylinder deactivation and start and stop thermal management technologies, drivetrain systems and components including axles, drivelines, braking and suspension systems, electric power generation systems and construction related projects, batteries, electrified power systems, hydrogen production and fuel cell products, parts, maintenance services and extended warranty coverage.
Typically, we recognize revenue on the products we sell at a point in time, generally in accordance with shipping terms, which reflects the transfer of control to the customer. Since control of construction projects transfer to the customer as the work is performed, revenue on these projects is recognized based on the percentage of inputs incurred to date compared to the total expected cost of inputs, which is reflective of the value transferred to the customer. Revenue is recognized under long-term maintenance and other service agreements over the term of the agreement as underlying services are performed based on the percentage of the cost of services provided to date compared to the total expected cost of services to be provided under the contract. Sales of extended coverage are recognized based on the pattern of expected costs over the extended coverage period or, if such a pattern is unknown, on a straight-line basis over the coverage period as the customer is considered to benefit from our stand ready obligation over the coverage period. In all cases, we believe cost incurred is the most representative depiction of the extent of service performed to date on a particular contract.
Our arrangements may include the act of shipping products to our customers after the performance obligation related to that product has been satisfied. We have elected to account for shipping and handling as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer goods and have not allocated revenue to the shipping activity. All related shipping and handling costs are accrued at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied.
Our sales arrangements may include the collection of sales and other similar taxes that are then remitted to the related taxing authority. We have elected to present the amounts collected for these taxes net of the related tax expense rather than presenting them as additional revenue.
We grant credit limits and terms to customers based upon traditional practices and competitive conditions. Typical terms vary by market, but payments are generally due in 90 days or less from invoicing for most of our product and service sales, while payments on construction and other similar arrangements may be due on an installment basis.
For contracts where the time between cash collection and performance is less than one year, we have elected to use the practical expedient that allows us to ignore the possible existence of a significant financing component within the contract. For contracts where this time period exceeds one year, generally the timing difference is the result of business concerns other than financing. We do have a limited amount of customer financing for which we charge or impute interest, but such amounts are immaterial to our Consolidated Statements of Net Income.
Sales Incentives
We provide various sales incentives to both our distribution network and OEM customers. These programs are designed to promote the sale of our products in the channel or encourage the usage of our products by OEM customers. When there is uncertainty surrounding these sales incentives, we may limit the amount of revenue we recognize under a contract until the uncertainty has been resolved. Sales incentives primarily fall into three categories:
Volume rebates;
Market share rebates; and
Aftermarket rebates.
For volume rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities for attaining specified volumes during a particular quarter or year. We consider the expected amount of these rebates at the time of the original sale as we determine the overall transaction price. We update our assessment of the amount of rebates that will be earned quarterly based on our best estimate of the volume levels the customer will reach during the measurement period. For market share rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities based on the percentage of their production that utilizes our product. These rebates are typically measured either quarterly or annually and we assess them at least quarterly to determine our current estimates of amounts expected to be earned. These estimates are considered in the determination of transaction price at the time of the original sale based on the current market shares, with adjustments made as the level changes. For aftermarket rebates, we provide incentives to promote sales to certain dealers and end-markets. These rebates are typically paid on a quarterly, or more frequent basis. At the time of the sales, we consider the expected
amount of these rebates when determining the overall transaction price. Estimates are adjusted at the end of each quarter based on the amounts yet to be paid. These estimates are based on historical experience with the particular program.
Sales Returns
The initial determination of the transaction price may also be impacted by expected product returns. Rights of return do not exist for the majority of our sales other than for quality issues. We do offer certain return rights in our aftermarket business, where some aftermarket customers are permitted to return small amounts of parts and filters each year, and in our power generation business, which sells portable generators to retail customers. An estimate of future returns is accounted for at the time of sale as a reduction in the overall contract transaction price based on historical return rates.
Multiple Performance Obligations
Our sales arrangements may include multiple performance obligations. We identify each of the material performance obligations in these arrangements and allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on its relative selling price. In most cases, the individual performance obligations are also sold separately and we use that price as the basis for allocating revenue to the included performance obligations. When an arrangement includes multiple performance obligations and invoicing to the customer does not match the allocated portion of the transaction price, unbilled revenue or deferred revenue is recorded reflecting that difference. Unbilled and deferred revenue are discussed in more detail below.
Long-term Contracts
Our long-term maintenance agreements often include a variable component of the transaction price. We are generally compensated under such arrangements on a cost per hour of usage basis. We typically can estimate the expected usage over the life of the contract, but reassess the transaction price each quarter and adjust our recognized revenue accordingly. Certain maintenance agreements apply to generators used to provide standby power, which have limited expectations of usage. These agreements may include monthly minimum payments, providing some certainty to the total transaction price. For these particular contracts that relate to standby power, we limit revenue recognized to date to an amount representing the total minimums earned to date under the contract plus any cumulative billings earned in excess of the minimums. We reassess the estimates of progress and transaction price on a quarterly basis. For prime power arrangements, revenue is not subject to such a constraint and is generally equal to the current estimate on a percentage of completion basis times the total expected revenue under the contract.
Deferred Revenue
The timing of our billing does not always match the timing of our revenue recognition. We record deferred revenue when we are entitled to bill a customer in advance of when we are permitted to recognize revenue. Deferred revenue may arise in construction and other power generation system contracts, where billings may occur in advance of performance or in accordance with specific milestones. Deferred revenue may also occur in long-term maintenance contracts, where billings are often based on usage of the underlying equipment, which generally follows a predictable pattern that often will result in the accumulation of collections in advance of our performance of the related maintenance services. Finally, deferred revenue exists in our extended coverage contracts, where the cash is collected prior to the commencement of the coverage period. Deferred revenue is included in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current liabilities for the amount expected to be recognized in revenue in a period of less than one year and long-term liabilities for the amount expected to be recognized as revenue in a period beyond one year. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue when control of the underlying product, project or service passes to the customer under the related contract.
Unbilled Revenue
We recognize unbilled revenue when the revenue has been earned, but not yet billed. Unbilled revenue is included in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of current assets for those expected to be collected in a period of less than one year and long-term assets for those expected to be collected in a period beyond one year. Unbilled revenue relates to our right to consideration for our completed performance under a contract. Unbilled revenue generally arises from contractual provisions that delay a portion of the billings on genset deliveries until commissioning occurs. Unbilled revenue may also occur when billings trail the provision of service in construction and long-term maintenance contracts. Our unbilled revenue is assessed for collection risks at the time the amounts are initially recorded. This estimate of expected losses reflects those losses expected to occur over the contractual life of the unbilled amount through the time of collection. We did not record any impairment losses on our unbilled revenues during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Contract Costs
We are required to record an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer and other costs to fulfill a contract not otherwise required to be immediately expensed when we expect to recover those costs. The only material incremental cost we incur is commission expense, which is generally incurred in the same period as the underlying revenue. Costs to fulfill a contract are generally limited to customer-specific engineering expenses that do not meet the definition of research and development expenses. As
a practical expedient, we have elected to recognize these costs of obtaining a contract as an expense when the related contract period is less than one year. When the period exceeds one year, this asset is amortized over the life of the contract. We did not have any material capitalized balances at December 31, 2022 or 2021.
Extended Warranty
We sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines and on certain components. We consider a warranty to be extended coverage in any of the following situations:
When a warranty is sold separately or is optional (extended coverage contracts, for example) or
When a warranty provides additional services.
The consideration collected is initially deferred and is recognized as revenue in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred in performing services over the contract period. We compare the remaining deferred revenue balance quarterly to the estimated amount of future claims under extended warranty programs and provide an additional accrual when the deferred revenue balance is less than expected future costs.
Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation
We translate assets and liabilities of foreign entities to U.S. dollars, where the local currency is the functional currency, at month-end exchange rates. We translate income and expenses to U.S. dollars using weighted-average exchange rates. We record adjustments resulting from translation in a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss (AOCL) and include the adjustments in net income only upon sale, loss of controlling financial interest or liquidation of the underlying foreign investment.
Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in current net income. For foreign entities where the U.S. dollar is the functional currency, including those operating in highly inflationary economies when applicable, we remeasure non-monetary balances and the related income statement amounts using historical exchange rates. We include the resulting gains and losses in income, including the effect of derivatives in our Consolidated Statements of Net Income, which combined with transaction gains and losses amounted to a net loss of $8 million and a net gain of $2 million and $4 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Fair Value Measurements
A three-level valuation hierarchy, based upon the observable and unobservable inputs, is used for fair value measurements. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions based on the best evidence available. These two types of inputs create the following fair value hierarchy:
Level 1 - Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets;
Level 2 - Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active and model-derived valuations whose significant inputs are observable; and
Level 3 - Instruments whose significant inputs are unobservable.
Derivative Instruments
We make use of derivative instruments in foreign exchange, commodity price and interest rate hedging programs. Derivatives currently in use are foreign currency forward contracts, commodity swap and interest rate swaps and locks. These contracts are used strictly for hedging and not for speculative purposes.
Due to our international business presence, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk. We transact in foreign currencies and have assets, liabilities and investments in subsidiaries denominated in foreign currencies. Consequently, our income experiences some volatility related to movements in foreign currency exchange rates. In order to benefit from global diversification and after considering naturally offsetting currency positions, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts to minimize our existing exposures (recognized assets and liabilities) and hedge forecasted transactions. Foreign currency forward contracts are designated and qualify as foreign currency cash flow hedges. The unrealized gain or loss on the forward contract is deferred and reported as a component of AOCL. When the hedged forecasted transaction (sale or purchase) occurs, the unrealized gain or loss is reclassified into income in the same line item associated with the hedged transaction in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects income. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, realized and unrealized gains and losses related to these hedges were not material to our financial statements.
To minimize the income volatility resulting from the remeasurement of net monetary assets and payables denominated in a currency other than the functional currency, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts, which are considered economic hedges. The objective is to offset the gain or loss from remeasurement with the gain or loss from the fair market valuation of the forward contract. These derivative instruments are not designated as hedges.
We are further exposed to foreign currency exchange risk as many of our subsidiaries are subject to fluctuations as the functional currencies of the underlying entities are not our U.S. dollar reporting currency. In order to minimize movements in certain investments, in 2022 we began entering into foreign exchange forwards designated as net investment hedges. These forwards are utilized to hedge portions of our net investments against the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on the translation of foreign currency balances to the U.S. dollar. The change in fair value related to the spot-to-forward rate difference is recorded as other income (expense) with all other changes in fair value deferred and reported as components of AOCL. The unrealized gain or loss is classified into income in the same period when the foreign subsidiary is sold or substantially liquidated.
We are exposed to fluctuations in commodity prices due to contractual agreements with component suppliers. In order to protect ourselves against future price volatility and, consequently, fluctuations in gross margins, we periodically enter into commodity swap and forward contracts with designated banks and other counterparties to fix the cost of certain raw material purchases with the objective of minimizing changes in inventory cost due to market price fluctuations. These commodity swaps are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges. At December 31, 2022, realized and unrealized gains and losses related to these hedges were not material to our financial statements. We also enter into physical forward contracts, which qualify for the normal purchases scope exception and are treated as purchase commitments. Additional information on the physical forwards is included in NOTE 15, "COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES."
We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in interest rates. We manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations through the use of interest rate swaps and locks. The objective is to more effectively balance our borrowing costs and interest rate risk for current and future exposure. The gain or loss on the swaps as well as the offsetting gain or loss on the hedged item are recognized in current income as interest expense. The gain or loss on the locks is deferred and reported as a component of AOCL. For more detail on our interest rate swaps, see NOTE 22, "DERIVATIVES."
We record all derivatives at fair value in our financial statements. Cash flows related to derivatives that are designated as hedges are classified in the same manner as the item being hedged, while cash flows related to derivatives that are not designated as hedges are included in cash flows from investing activities in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Substantially all of our derivative contracts are subject to master netting arrangements, which provide us with the option to settle certain contracts on a net basis when they settle on the same day with the same currency. In addition, these arrangements provide for a net settlement of all contracts with a given counterparty in the event that the arrangement is terminated due to the occurrence of default or a termination event. When material, we adjust the value of our derivative contracts for counter-party or our credit risk. None of our derivative instruments are subject to collateral requirements.
Income Tax Accounting
We determine our income tax expense using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. Future tax benefits of net operating loss and credit carryforwards are also recognized as deferred tax assets. We evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets each quarter by assessing the likelihood of future profitability and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize our net deferred tax assets. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the tax assets to the net value management believes is more likely than not to be realized. In the event our operating performance deteriorates, future assessments could conclude that a larger valuation allowance will be needed to further reduce the deferred tax assets. In addition, we operate within multiple taxing jurisdictions and are subject to tax audits in these jurisdictions. These audits can involve complex issues, which may require an extended period of time to resolve. We accrue for the estimated additional tax and interest that may result from tax authorities disputing uncertain tax positions. We believe we made adequate provisions for income taxes for all years that are subject to audit based upon the latest information available. A more complete description of our income taxes and the future benefits of our net operating loss and credit carryforwards is disclosed in NOTE 5, "INCOME TAXES."
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents are defined as short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase. The carrying amounts reflected in our Consolidated Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of these investments.
Cash payments for income taxes and interest were as follows:
  Years ended December 31,
In millions 2022 2021 2020
Cash payments for income taxes, net of refunds $ 903  $ 521  $ 432 
Cash payments for interest, net of capitalized interest 184  111  88 
Marketable Securities
Debt securities are classified as "held-to-maturity," "available-for-sale" or "trading." We determine the appropriate classification of debt securities at the time of purchase and re-evaluate such classifications at each balance sheet date. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, all of our debt securities were classified as available-for-sale. Debt and equity securities are carried at fair value with the unrealized gain or loss, net of tax, reported in other comprehensive income and other income, respectively. For debt securities, unrealized losses considered to be "other-than-temporary" are recognized currently in other income. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method. The fair value of most investment securities is determined by currently available market prices. Where quoted market prices are not available, we use the market price of similar types of securities that are traded in the market to estimate fair value. See NOTE 6, "MARKETABLE SECURITIES," for a detailed description of our investments in marketable securities.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable represent amounts billed to customers and not yet collected or amounts that were earned, but may not be billed until the passage of time, and are recorded when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, which approximates net realizable value, and generally do not bear interest. The allowance for doubtful accounts is our best estimate of the amount of expected credit losses in our existing accounts receivable. We determine the allowance based on our historical collection experience and by performing an analysis of our accounts receivable in light of the current economic environment. This estimate of expected losses reflects those losses expected to occur over the contractual life of the receivable. We review our allowance for doubtful accounts on a regular basis. In addition, when necessary, we provide an allowance for the full amount of specific accounts deemed to be uncollectible. Account balances are charged off against the allowance in the period in which we determine that it is probable the receivable will not be recovered. The allowance for doubtful accounts balances were $78 million and $33 million at December 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively, and bad debt write-offs were not material.
Our inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, approximately 14 percent and 15 percent, respectively, of our consolidated inventories (primarily heavy-duty and high-horsepower engines and parts) were valued using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) cost method. The cost of other inventories is generally valued using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) cost method. Our inventories at interim and year-end reporting dates include estimates for adjustments related to annual physical inventory results and for inventory cost changes under the LIFO cost method. Due to significant movements of partially-manufactured components and parts between manufacturing plants, we do not internally measure, nor do our accounting systems provide, a meaningful segregation between raw materials and work-in-process. See NOTE 7, "INVENTORIES," for additional information.
Property, Plant and Equipment
We record property, plant and equipment at cost, inclusive of assets under finance leases. We depreciate the cost of the majority of our property, plant and equipment using the straight-line method with depreciable lives ranging from 20 to 40 years for buildings and 3 to 15 years for machinery, equipment and fixtures. Finance lease asset amortization is recorded in depreciation expense. We expense normal maintenance and repair costs as incurred. Depreciation expense totaled $557 million, $514 million and $504 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. See NOTE 8, "PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT" and NOTE 9, "LEASES," for additional information.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of the carrying value of the long-lived assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. An impairment of a long-lived asset or asset group exists when the expected future pre-tax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) estimated to be generated by the asset or asset group is less than its carrying value. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such asset or asset group, an impairment loss is measured based on the difference between the estimated fair value and carrying value of the asset or asset group. Assumptions and estimates used to estimate cash flows in the evaluation of impairment and the fair values used to determine the impairment are subject to a degree of judgment and complexity. Any changes to the assumptions and estimates resulting
from changes in actual results or market conditions from those anticipated may affect the carrying value of long-lived assets and could result in a future impairment charge.
We determine if an arrangement contains a lease in whole or in part at the inception of the contract. Right-of-use (ROU) assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term while lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. All leases greater than 12 months result in the recognition of a ROU asset and a liability at the lease commencement date based on the present value of the lease payments over the lease term. As most of our leases do not provide the information required to determine the implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. This rate is determined considering factors such as the lease term, our credit standing and the economic environment of the location of the lease. We use the implicit rate when readily determinable.
Our lease terms include all non-cancelable periods and may include options to extend (or to not terminate) the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Leases that have a term of 12 months or less at the commencement date are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease term and do not result in the recognition of an asset or a liability.
Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Lease expense for finance leases is generally front-loaded as the finance lease ROU asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis, but interest expense on the liability is recognized utilizing the interest method that results in more expense during the early years of the lease. We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, primarily related to real estate, vehicle and information technology (IT) assets. For vehicle and real estate leases, we account for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component. For IT leases, we allocate the payment between the lease and non-lease components based on the relative value of each component. See NOTE 9, "LEASES," for additional information.
We have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform an annual quantitative goodwill impairment test. We elected this option on certain reporting units. The quantitative impairment test is only required if an entity determines through this qualitative analysis that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. In addition, the carrying value of goodwill must be tested for impairment on an interim basis in certain circumstances where impairment may be indicated. We perform our annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value.
When we are required or opt to perform the quantitative impairment test, the fair value of each reporting unit is estimated with either the market approach or the income approach. Our income approach method uses a discounted cash flow model in which cash flows anticipated over several periods, plus a terminal value at the end of that time horizon, are discounted to their present value using an appropriate rate of return. Our reporting units are generally defined as one level below an operating segment. However, there are three situations where we have aggregated two or more reporting units which share similar economic characteristics and thus are aggregated into a single reporting unit for testing purposes. These three situations are described further below:
Within our Components segment, our emission solutions and filtration businesses were aggregated into a single reporting unit,
Within our New Power segment, our fuel cell and electrolyzer businesses were aggregated into a single reporting unit and
Our Distribution segment is considered a single reporting unit as it is managed geographically and all regions share similar economic characteristics and provide similar products and services.
The discounted cash flow model requires us to make projections of revenue, gross margin, operating expenses, working capital investment and fixed asset additions for the reporting units over a multi-year period. Additionally, management must estimate a weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects a market rate, for each reporting unit for use as a discount rate. The discounted cash flows are compared to the carrying value of the reporting unit and, if less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as a goodwill impairment loss. In addition, we also perform a sensitivity analysis to determine how much our forecasts can fluctuate before the fair value of a reporting unit would be lower than its carrying amount. Future changes in the judgments, assumptions and estimates that are used in our goodwill impairment testing, including discount rates or future operating results and related cash flow projections, could result in significantly different estimates of the fair values in the future. An increase in discount rates, a reduction in projected cash flows or a combination of the two could lead to a reduction in the estimated fair values, which may result in impairment charges
that could materially affect our financial statements in any given year. We perform the required procedures as of the end of our fiscal third quarter.
After considering the results of the recent fair value valuations related to the Meritor acquisition, the capital markets environment, economic conditions, results of operations and other factors, we concluded that the fair value of all of our reporting units exceeded their carrying value as of September 30, 2022. However, given the recent acquisition of Meritor, when fair value equaled carrying value as of the acquisition date (August 3, 2022), there is a heightened risk of a future impairment to the extent its fair value changes in future periods.
At December 31, 2022, our recorded goodwill was $2.3 billion, of which approximately 31 percent resided in the axles and brakes reporting unit, 23 percent in the automated transmissions reporting unit and 16 percent in the aggregated emission solutions and filtration reporting unit. Changes in our projections or estimates, a deterioration of our operating results and the related cash flow effect or a significant increase in the discount rate could decrease the estimated fair value of our reporting units and result in a future impairment of goodwill. See NOTE 10, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
Other Intangible Assets
We capitalize other intangible assets, such as trademarks, patents and customer relationships, that were acquired either individually or with a group of other assets. These intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from 3 to 25 years. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable over the remaining lives of the assets. See NOTE 10, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
We capitalize software that is developed or obtained for internal use. Software costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives generally ranging from 2 to 12 years. Software assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable over the remaining lives of the assets. Upgrades and enhancements are capitalized if they result in significant modifications that enable the software to perform tasks it was previously incapable of performing. Software maintenance, training, data conversion and business process reengineering costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred. See NOTE 10, "GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS," for additional information.
We estimate and record a liability for base warranty programs at the time our products are sold. Our estimates are based on historical experience and reflect management's best estimates of expected costs at the time products are sold and subsequent adjustment to those expected costs when actual costs differ. Factors considered in developing these estimates included component failure rates, repair costs and the point of failure within the product life cycle. As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the nature and frequency of product campaigns, the liability for such campaigns is recorded when we commit to a recall action or when a recall becomes probable and estimable, which generally occurs when it is announced. The liability for these campaigns is reflected in the provision for product campaigns. We review and assess the liability for these programs on a quarterly basis. We also assess our ability to recover certain costs from our suppliers and record a receivable when we believe a recovery is probable. In addition to costs incurred on warranty and product campaigns, from time to time we also incur costs related to customer satisfaction programs for items not covered by warranty. We accrue for these costs when agreement is reached with a specific customer. These costs are not included in the provision for warranties, but are included in cost of sales. In addition, we sell extended warranty coverage on most of our engines. See Extended Warranty policy discussion above and NOTE 14, "PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional information.
Research and Development
Our research and development programs are focused on product improvements, product extensions, innovations and cost reductions for our customers. Research and development expenditures include salaries, contractor fees, building costs, utilities, testing, technical information technology expenses, administrative expenses and allocation of corporate costs and are expensed, net of contract reimbursements, when incurred. From time to time, we enter into agreements with customers and government agencies to fund a portion of the research and development costs of a particular project. When not associated with a sales contract, we generally account for these reimbursements as an offset to the related research and development expenditure. Research and development expenses, net of contract reimbursements, were $1.2 billion, $1.1 billion and $0.9 billion for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Contract reimbursements were $110 million, $104 million and $86 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Related Party Transactions
In accordance with the provisions of various joint venture agreements, we may purchase products and components from our joint ventures, sell products and components to our joint ventures and our joint ventures may sell products and components to unrelated parties. Joint venture transfer prices may differ from normal selling prices. Certain joint venture agreements transfer product at cost, some transfer product on a cost-plus basis, and others transfer product at market value. Sales to nonconsolidated equity investees were $1.2 billion, $1.7 billion and $1.3 billion for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Related party sales in 2022 were down primarily due to lower sales in China due to COVID shutdowns and the acquisition of Cummins Westport, Inc. (Westport JV). Accounts receivable from nonconsolidated equity investees are presented on the face of our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Purchases from nonconsolidated equity investees were $1.8 billion, $1.8 billion and $1.3 billion for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and accounts payable to nonconsolidated equity investees were $292 million and $227 million at December 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Government Assistance
From time to time, we receive assistance from government agencies primarily related to two areas (1) expense reimbursement and funding grants in the form of cash in conjunction with research and development projects and (2) incentives primarily related to investments in new or existing facilities. The grants and related projects range in term from 1 to 6 years. Generally, the grant awards for research are payable to us when we achieve specific milestones or deliverables. Certain grant awards are subject to audit, whereby non-compliance may result in a refund to the government agency. Grants related to investments supporting facilities are typically in the form of reimbursement for capital assets or expenses such as training the employees at those facilities.
We recognize grant awards related to research and development as an offset of the related research and development expenditure when the awards become payable upon us meeting a specific milestone or deliverable. We recognize grant awards for reimbursement of capital as a reduction in value of the related fixed asset. We recognize grants for reimbursement of training or other expenses as an offset to the related expense. For the year ended December 31, 2022, government grants did not have a material impact on our financial statements as a whole and we did not have any individually material grant awards.
In November 2021, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued a standard related to the disclosure of government assistance received by an entity. Under the new standard, entities are required to disclose (1) the types of assistance received, (2) accounting for the assistance and (3) impact of the assistance in the financial statements. We adopted the new standard on January 1, 2022, on a prospective basis, and it did not have a material impact on our financial statements. See Government Assistance above for additional information.